Answer for “Research using twins” with explanations

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Answers Keywords Location Explanation
1. FALSE genetic causes, differences,  young skin P1, lines 8-11 Any differences between them – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.

  • the differences are because of the environment, not for genetic causes.
2. NOT GIVEN greater risk, illnesses P2, L7-11 If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity.

  • The sentence starts with ‘if’, which means the writer only compares identical twins with fraternal twins, he doesn’t make a comparison between twins and non-twins.
3. NOT GIVEN Bouchard, advertised, newspapers P3, 4 Nowhere in the paragraph we find any reference to advertisement in newspapers.
4. TRUE Epigenetic processes, genetic, environmental P6, L4 ….nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to  a recent field called  epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes.

  • genetic and environmental processes= nature and nurture
5. A term, distinguish, characteristics P4, L1 The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase „nature and nurture‟)

  • invented=coined
6. C epigenetics, increase our knowledge P12, lines 1-3 Reed  adds,  the  latest  work  in  epigenetics  promises  to  take  our understanding even further.

  • study of epigenetics=work in epigenetics
  • increase our knowledge= take our understanding even further
7. B mathematical method, measuring genetic influences P5, L1 Bouchard  and  his  colleagues  used  this  mountain  of  data  to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. In broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics.

  • Here, statistical concept = mathematical method
8. A pioneered, research, genetics, twins P 4, L1-4 The  idea  of  using  twins  to  measure  the  influence  of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase “nature and nurture”)

  • pioneered=first suggested
9. B research, lived apart P4, L6-10 …  twin  studies  took  a  surprising  twist  in  the  1980s,  with  the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard‟s lab….”

  • lived apart= been separated at birth
10. D influence, genes, creating internal P 7, L1 Epigenetic  processes  are  chemical  reactions  tied  to  neither nature  nor  nurture  but  representing  what  researchers  have  called  a third  component.  These  reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on of off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies.

  • the activity of our genes = how our genetic code is expressed
  • organs = brains and all other parts of our bodies
  • create= build
11. B influence, genes, creating internal P 7, L1 Epigenetic  processes  are  chemical  reactions  tied  to  neither nature  nor  nurture  but  representing  what  researchers  have  called  a third  component.  These  reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on of off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies.

  • the activity of our genes = how our genetic code is expressed
  • organs = brains and all other parts of our bodies
  • create= build
12. E uncovering a way, our genes can be affected P9, L 1-5 One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts our genes.

  • impact= affected
  • revealing= uncovering a way
13. F pregnant rat, suffers stress P9, L5-9 Studies  of  animals,  for  example,  have  shown  that  when  a  rat experiences  stress  during  pregnancy,  it  can  cause  epigenetic  changes  in  a  fetus  that  lead  to  behavioral problems as the rodent grows up

 

Answer for “Research using twins” with explanations

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