Answers for ”The scientific method” with explanations

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Question 29-33:
29. iv (para C, line 1-9: “The myth of scientific method is that it is inductive: that the
formulation of scientific theory starts with the basic, raw evidence of the senses — simple,
unbiased, unprejudiced observation. Out of these sensory data — commonly referred to
as „facts‟ — generalisations will form. The”)

30. vii (para D, line 10-16: “hypothesis. Hypotheses provide the initiative and incentive for
the inquiry and influence the method. It is in the light of an expectation that some
observations are held to be relevant and some irrelevant, that one methodology is chosen
and others discarded, that some experiments are conducted and”)

31. iii (para E, first 5 lines: “Hypotheses arise by guesswork, or by inspiration, but having
been formulated they can and must be tested rigorously, using the appropriate
methodology. If the”)

32. v (para F, first 8 lines: “So don’t worry if you have some idea of what your results will
tell you before you even begin to collect data; there are no scientists in existence who
really wait until they have all the evidence in front of them before they try to work out
what it might possibly mean. The”)

33. vi (para G, line 6-23: “inevitable fashion. The hypothetico-deductive method describes
the logical approach to much research work, but it does not describe the psychological
behaviour that brings it about. This is much more holistic — involving guesses,
reworkings, corrections, blind alleys and above all inspiration, in the deductive as well as
the hypothetic component — than is immediately apparent from reading the final thesis
or published papers. These have been, quite properly, organised into a more serial, logical
order so that the worth of the output may be evaluated independently of the behavioural
processes by which it was obtained.

Question 34-35:
34. B (para B, first 5 lines: “It is essential that you, as an intending researcher, understand the
difference between these two interpretations of the research process so that you do not
become”)

35. F (para F, first 4 lines: “So don’t worry if you have some idea of what your results will
tell you before you even begin to collect data; there are no scientists in”

Question 36-39:
36. YES (para A, line 6-9: “taken by Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972,
3rd edition) that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico-deductive”)

37. NO (para E, line 10-15: “your hypothesis. If the predictions turn out to be correct then
your hypothesis has been supported and may be retained until such time as some further
test shows it not to be correct. Once you have arrived at”)

38. NOT GIVEN

39. YES (para G, line 6-18: “inevitable fashion. The hypothetico-deductive method describes
the logical approach to much research work, but it does not describe the psychological
behaviour that brings it about. This is much more holistic — involving guesses,
reworkings, corrections, blind alleys and above all inspiration, in the deductive as well as
the hypothetic component — than is immediately apparent from reading the final thesis
or published papers. These have been, quite”)

Question 40:
40. D

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