Answer for “Children’s Thinking” with explanations

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Answer Keywords Location Explanation
28 CH famous, psychology P 1, L 1 One of the most eminent of psychologists, Clark Hull, claimed that the essence ………..
  • most eminent= remarkable, famous
29 MC button pressing marble, adults, children P 4, L 1 In paragraph 2 you will see the experimental explanation.

In paragraph 3 you will see Kendler’s finding for children

In paragraph 4……..The mystery at first appears to deepen when we learn, from another psychologist, Michael Cole, and his colleagues, that adults in an African culture apparently cannot do the ‘ task either

  • task either= neither children nor adults
30 MC without marble P 5, line 1 Instead of the button-pressing machine, Cole used a locked box and two differently colored match-boxes, one of which contained a key that would open the box.
  • button-pressing machine= machine that contains marble(paragraph 3)
31 SH improves, performance P 2nd last, L 1 The two modifications together produced a jump in success rates from 30 per cent to 90 per cent for five-year-olds and from 35 per cent to 72.5 per cent for four-year-olds.
  • jump in success= improve
32 SH drawer opening P 7, L 2 First, he replaced the button-pressing mechanism in the side panels by drawers in these panels which the child could open and shut.
33 MC encounter in everyday life P 5 line 10 Instead of button pressing Cole used……

Now the subject is dealing not with a strange machine but with familiar meaningful objects; and it is clear to him what he is meant to do.

  • familiar meaningful objects= encounter in everyday life
  • Cole= Michael Cole
34 HTK five-years-old, college P 6, L 6 When these are changed in ways which do not at all affect the inferential nature of the problem, then five-year-old children solve the problem as well as college students did in the ‘ own experiments.
  • Both sets of subject= five-year-old children as well as college students
35 SH wrong conclusion P last, l 1 We may conclude, then, that children experience very real difficulty when faced with the Kendler apparatus; but this difficulty cannot be taken as proof that they are incapable of deductive reasoning.
  • wrong decision/conclusion
37 YES Kendlers, integrate P 3, Given the task of getting a marble by pressing the button they could get the marble; given the task of getting a toy when a marble was handed to them, they could use the marble. (All they had to do was put it in a hole.) But they did not for the most part ‘integrate’,
38 YES Michael Cole, inductive reasoning P 5, L10 Now the subject is dealing not with a strange machine but with familiar meaningful objects; and it is clear to him what he is meant to do.
39 YES Hewson’s, marble P 2nd last, line 3 How is he to know that any other marble of similar size will do just as well? ………….’swapping game’ with the children.
40 NO modification, success rate P 2nd last, line 5 For three-year- olds, for reasons that are still in need of clarification, no improvement—rather a slight drop in performance – resulted from the change.
  •  no improvement= no success rate
  • change= modification


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