|28 CH||famous, psychology||P 1, L 1||One of the most eminent of psychologists, Clark Hull, claimed that the essence ………..
|29 MC||button pressing marble, adults, children||P 4, L 1||In paragraph 2 you will see the experimental explanation.
In paragraph 3 you will see Kendler’s finding for children
In paragraph 4……..The mystery at first appears to deepen when we learn, from another psychologist, Michael Cole, and his colleagues, that adults in an African culture apparently cannot do the ‘ task either.
|30 MC||without marble||P 5, line 1||Instead of the button-pressing machine, Cole used a locked box and two differently colored match-boxes, one of which contained a key that would open the box.
|31 SH||improves, performance||P 2nd last, L 1||The two modifications together produced a jump in success rates from 30 per cent to 90 per cent for five-year-olds and from 35 per cent to 72.5 per cent for four-year-olds.
|32 SH||drawer opening||P 7, L 2||First, he replaced the button-pressing mechanism in the side panels by drawers in these panels which the child could open and shut.|
|33 MC||encounter in everyday life||P 5 line 10||Instead of button pressing Cole used……
Now the subject is dealing not with a strange machine but with familiar meaningful objects; and it is clear to him what he is meant to do.
|34 HTK||five-years-old, college||P 6, L 6||When these are changed in ways which do not at all affect the inferential nature of the problem, then five-year-old children solve the problem as well as college students did in the ‘ own experiments.
|35 SH||wrong conclusion||P last, l 1||We may conclude, then, that children experience very real difficulty when faced with the Kendler apparatus; but this difficulty cannot be taken as proof that they are incapable of deductive reasoning.
|36 NOT GIVEN|
|37 YES||Kendlers, integrate||P 3,||Given the task of getting a marble by pressing the button they could get the marble; given the task of getting a toy when a marble was handed to them, they could use the marble. (All they had to do was put it in a hole.) But they did not for the most part ‘integrate’,|
|38 YES||Michael Cole, inductive reasoning||P 5, L10||Now the subject is dealing not with a strange machine but with familiar meaningful objects; and it is clear to him what he is meant to do.|
|39 YES||Hewson’s, marble||P 2nd last, line 3||How is he to know that any other marble of similar size will do just as well? ………….’swapping game’ with the children.|
|40 NO||modification, success rate||P 2nd last, line 5||For three-year- olds, for reasons that are still in need of clarification, no improvement—rather a slight drop in performance – resulted from the change.