IELTS reading answer “In search of the holy grail” with explanation
|27. Aollo (space) programme||compares, scale to||P 1 L 1||It has been called the Holy Grail of modern biology. Costing more than £2 billion, it is the most ambitious scientific project since the Apollo programme that landed a man on the moon.
|28. (early) next century||possible, completion date||P 1 L 8||And it will take longer to accomplish than the lunar missions, for it will not be complete until early next century.|
|29. 7,000||genome, require||P 3 L 20||On the printed page it would fill about 7,000 volumes.
|30. diseases||drug, not||P 5 L 1||None of the single-gene disorders is a disease in the conventional sense, for which it would be possible to administer a curative drug: the defect is pre-programmed into every cell of the sufferer’s body.
|31. muscular dystrophy||genetic defect||P 5, L 9||American researchers identified the genetic defect underlying one type of muscular dystrophy.|
|32. cystic fibrosis||gene defect||P 5, L 13||In 1989, a team of American and Canadian biologists announced that they had found the site of the gene which, when defective, gives rise to cystic fibrosis.|
|33. D||project new, understanding||P 1 L 12||Even before it is finished, according to those involved, this project should open up new understanding of, and new treatments for, many of the ailments that afflict humanity.|
|34. C||components, DNA, recorded||P 3 L 21||Yet, within little more than a decade, the position of every letter and its relation to its neighbors will have been tracked down, analysed and recorded.|
|35. B||monster, gene||P 2 L 18||But others see the future through a darker glass, and fear that the project may open the door to a world peopled by Frankenstein’s monsters and disfigured by a new eugenics.|
|36. C||order, genetic data||P 6, L 12||Momentum quickly built up behind the Human Genome Project and its objective of ‘sequencing’ the entire genome – writing out all the letters in their correct order.
|37. D||parents, birth, offspring||P 5, L 31||Foetuses can be tested while in the womb, and if found free of the genetic defect, the parents will be relieved of worry and stress, knowing that they will be delivered of a baby free from the disorder.
|38. B||human, data||P 6, L 1||In the mid-1980s, the idea gained currency within the scientific world that the techniques which were successfully deciphering disorder-related genes could be applied to a larger project: if science can learn the genetic spelling of cystic fibrosis, why not attempt to find out how to spell ‘human’?|
|39. A||discriminated, new ways||P 9, L 6||But if the new knowledge is not used wisely, it also holds the threat of creating new forms of discrimination and new methods of oppression.|
|40. A||past experience, new knowledge||P 10, L 18||That such a potential is a promise and not a threat? We need only look at the past to understand the danger.