Answer for “This marvelous invention” with explanations

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Answers Keywords Location Explanation
27. vi In paragraph A, the writer emphasizes the importance of the invention of language compared to other inventions. So,  the  correct  heading  for  this  paragraph  is  why  language  is  the  most important invention of all.

Of  all  mankind’s  manifold  creations,  language  must  take  pride  of  place…Compared  to language,  all  other  inventions  pale  in  significance,  since  everything  we  have  ever  achieved  depends  on language  and  originates  from  it

28. iv The  writer  concludes  that “Language is mankind’s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.

This paragraph is all about incompatible characteristics of language.

  • paradox= incompatible characteristics
29. ii …barely three dozen measly morsels of sound”. “In themselves, these  configurations  of  mouth  –  p, f,  b,  v,  t,  d, k,  sh,  a,  e  and  so  on  – amount  to  nothing  […] But  run them  through  the  cogs  and  wheels  …………..of  air  cannot  do:  from  sighing  the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.

  • organised =let it arrange them in some very special orders
  • barely three dozen measly morsels of sound = a few sounds

This means that these sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning.

30. vii The language machine allows just about everybody ………………. infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without  the slightest exertion.

  • universal=just about everybody

This means that language is universal to use.

31. i Often,  it  is  the  only  estrangement  of  foreign  tongues,  with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of language’s design.

This means the more a language is different from other language, the more it becomes impressive also provides the example of a Turkish word of outstanding length that takes a whole sentence to utter in English.

32. v … . . . . even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific.

  • the absence of a sound = silence, specific = meaningful
33. E  wheel, invention, impact P A, L 1-4 Other inventions – the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human.
34. G  wheel, invention, impact P A, L 1-4 Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it.

Which means no impact has been as important (fundamental) as that of language, because every other invention owes its origin to language – language is fundamental.

35. B composed, small number of sounds PB, L 1 In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: .. .. .… this marvelous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expression . . . ..

These lines suggest that language is sophisticated or complex but it comes out of only a few sounds.

  • a small number= twenty-five or thirty
  • complex= an infinite variety of expressions
36. F appears, sophistication, overlooked paragraph D lines 5-9 .. . .. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick.

The lines suggest that language provides us easeand this ease has made people think very little about how sophisticated a language is.

37. NO present position, without language Para A, L5 Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.
38. YES Port-Royal grammarians Para B, L6 This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement.

Which means the Port-Royal grammarians have most eloquently or beautifully described the essence or nature of language. So, they did justice to the nature of language.

39. NOT GIVEN complex idea, clearly, sentence Nothing mentioned about such clearly.
40. YES Sumerians, recording events Para F, L1 And  if  that  sounds  like  some  one-off  freak,  then  consider Sumerian,  the  language  spoken  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates  some  5,000  years  ago  by  the  people  who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history.

Which means that the Sumerians invented writing and documentation of history.

 

 

Answer for “This marvelous invention” with explanations

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