IELTS reading answer “What is port city?” with explanation
|27 ii||P B||They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.|
|28 i||P C||Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. A port city is open to the world.|
|29 v||P D||Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible……|
|30 vi||P E||Most of any city’s population is engaged in providing goods and services for the city itself.|
|31 D||required, development||P A, line 8||Madras and Colombo are examples of harbors expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.
|32 C||began, ports, dominated||P B, line 4||Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports – that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function – but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant.|
|33 F||lost, prominence, ships||P D, line 5||Examples of these are Charleston, Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.
|34 G||ports, waterfront||P G, line 1||Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative center of the city close to the waterfront.|
|35 NO||cease, function, dominate||P B, line 8|| They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
|36 YES||past, trade, overseas||P E, line 1||Much domestic port trade has not been recorded. What evidence we have suggests that domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade.
|37 NO||people, trade city||P E, line 5||Trade outside the city is its basic function.
|38 YES||attract, subsidiary, independent||P F, line 2-5||The port function of the city draws….
……….refining raw materials or turning them into finished goods.
|39 NOT GIVEN|
|40 YES||river connections||P G, line 3||This proximity to water is also true of Boston, Philadelphia, ………