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IELTS reading answer “What is port city?” with explanation

IELTS reading answer “What is port city?” with explanation

 

 Answer  Keywords  Location  Explanation
27 ii

P B  They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
28 i

P C Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. A port city is open to the world.
29 v

P D Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible……
30 vi

P E Most of any city’s population is engaged in providing goods and services for the city itself.
31 D

required, development P A, line 8 Madras and Colombo are examples of harbors expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.
  • development= improved
32 C

began, ports, dominated P B, line 4 Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports – that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function – but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant.
33 F

lost, prominence, ships P D, line 5 Examples of these are Charleston, Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.
  • earlier prominent= lost prominence
34 G

ports, waterfront P G, line 1 Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative center of the city close to the waterfront.
35 NO

cease, function, dominate P B, line 8  They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
  • their port functions account for that difference= port function is always differentiated whether they cease or not
  • or, once  port city always a port city
36 YES

past, trade, overseas P E, line 1 Much domestic port trade has not been recorded. What evidence we have suggests that domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade.
  • domestic trade= within their own country
  • external trade= overseas
37 NO

people, trade city P E, line 5 Trade outside the city is its basic function.
  • most people are engaged in trading
38 YES

attract, subsidiary, independent P F, line 2-5 The port function of the city draws….

……….refining raw materials or turning them into finished goods.

  • draw= attract
  • refining raw materials= subsidiary(assistant before finished good is produced)
  • finished goods= independent(no assistance required)
39 NOT GIVEN

40 YES river connections P G, line 3 This proximity to water is also true of Boston, Philadelphia, ………
  • proximity to water= river connection

 

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