Cambridge Book 14 Test 1 Reading Answer with Explanation

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Answer of Cambridge Book 14 Test 1 with Explanation has three distinct passages with their respective explanation for the answer.

Explanation for Answer of The Importance of Children’s Play

  • The answers appear in the same order in the text as the order of the statements
  • You don’t need to read the whole text. First, you will scan for keywords and then you’ll read in detail the section in which they’re located for the answer.
  • There will be at least one of each answer type – True, False, Not Given. So, if you don’t have at least one of each when you’ve completed the question, you’ve made a mistake.
  •  Identify any words that qualify the statement, for example, some, all, mainly, often, always and occasionally. These words are there to test if you have read the whole statement because they can change the meaning. For example, ‘Coca-Cola has always made its drinks in the U.S.A.’ has a different meaning from ‘Coca-Cola has mainly made its drinks in the U.S.A.’
  • The statements won’t be a word-for-word match to the information in the text. They will contain synonyms and paraphrasing. It’s the meaning that you are trying to match.
  • Remember that at least one answer will be NG. This means that you will be searching for information that is not there.
  • Don’t answer based on your assumptions
  • If you can’t find the information you are looking for, then it is probably ‘not given’. Don’t waste time looking for something that is not there.
  • If you have no idea what the answer is put ‘not given’. You probably have no idea because the answer is not there.
  • Don’t write yes for True, No for false.
AnswerKeywordsLocationExplanation
1. Creativitymagical kingdom, developPara 1; Sent 1As we can easily locate the phrase “magical kingdom” in the first sentence of the passage.

In the last lines of the paragraph, the writer says, Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and . .  . .. ..

Here, this refers to the magical kingdom and helping her take her first steps towards her capacity means help develop her creativity.
2. rulesboard games, turn-takingPara 2, line 3As we can easily locate the phrase “board games and turn takes” in the 2nd paragraph of the passage.

Read this “Later on, when they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning about the need to follow rules and take turns with a partner.”
Which means that with board games, a child learns two things “1. follow the rules” and “2. take turns”.

Here, take turns with a partner means turn-taking and is already mentioned so your answer is rules
3. Citiespopulations, changesPara 5; line 1we can easily locate the phrase “changes” and “people= population” in the 5th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “But we live in changing times, and Whitebread is mindful of a worldwide decline in play, pointing out that over half the people in the world now live in cities”

Here, over half of people in the world now live in cities implies that the number of people living in cities has increased/ grown compared to the past.
4 and 5. traffic, crime(any order)opportunities, limited, fear ofPara 5, line 2You won’t find the direct keywords in this question.

The opportunities for free play, …. . . .   .. . . .   .. . are becoming increasingly scarce.’ he says. Outdoor play is curtailed by perceptions of risk to do with traffic, as well as parents’ increased wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime.

Here, becoming increasingly scarce means limited, perceptions of risk is similar to fear, and parents’ increased wish to protect their children means fear.

Writer mentions two reasons which are listed include “perception of risk to do with traffic”, “parents wish to protect their children from being victims of crime”.
6. competitionincreased, schoolPara 2, line 5 we can easily locate the phrase “school” 2nd paragraph of the passage.

. . .. .and by the emphasis on ‘earlier is better’ which is leading to greater competition in academic learning and schools.

Here, leading to greater competition means increased competition.
7. evidencedifficult, support new policiesPara 6, we can easily locate the phrase “difficult” and “police” in 6th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “International bodies like the United Nations and the European Union have begun to develop policies . … ..” Then in the last line, “ . .. .But what they often lack is the evidence to base policies on.”

The phrase “to base policies on” can be considered as “to support new policies”, and “what they often lack” means “it is difficult to find”.

so, it is difficult to find evidence to support polices.
8. lifechild’s, researchPara 8, line 2 we can easily locate the phrase “child’s later life” in 8th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “Dr Jenny Gibson agrees, pointing out . .. ., there is very little data on the impact it has on the child’s later life“.

Here, child’s later life means the rest of the child’s life
9. Truegood self-control, school, laterPara 11 we can easily locate the phrase self-control and “pre-schoolers” in 11th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “In a study carried out by Baker with toddlers and young pre-schoolers, she found that children with greater self-control solved problems more quickly when exploring an unfamiliar set-up requiring scientific reasoning. ‘This sort of evidence makes us think that giving children the chance to play will make them more successful problem-solvers in the long run.”

So, it is true that children with self-control do well in the long run.
10. Truechild plays, medical problemsPara  we can easily locate the phrase play and “medical problems= disorders” in 11th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “… Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. . .. . .. . . .give us important clues about their well-being and . .. .. . .. .useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.”

Here, the lines clearly shows that the way a child plays can be used to identify medical problems (autism).”
11. Not Givendolls, benefit, girlPara 14, line 4There is no comparison between girls’ writing and boys’ writing.
12. Falsechildren, thinking up ideas, Lego  Para 15, line 3 we can easily locate the phrase children and “lego” in 15th paragraph of the passage.

Read this “Children wrote longer and better-structured stories when they first played with dolls representing characters in the story. In the latest study, children first created their story with Lego, with similar results”.

Here, with lego they had similar results means Children wrote longer and better-structured stories. So, they had no problem, instead they could write longer and better. Hence, it is false.
13. Truenowadays, children’s play, less significantPara last, line 1No direct keywords are given.

Read this “Somehow the importance of play has been lost in recent decades. It’s regarded as something trivial, or even as something negative that contrasts with ‘work’.”

Here, nowadays means in recent decades and less significant is similar to has been lost, …. Regarded as something trivial.

Which means that in recent decades, attitudes to play have, therefore, changed. It is now considered to be something unimportant or even negative. In contrast, people in the past thought that it was more important.

Answer of The Growth of Bike-Sharing Schemes Around the World is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 1: Passage 2 aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

Answer of The Growth of Bike-Sharing Schemes Around the World

  • Answers are never in order
  • Some paragraphs may not have an answer at all and some could contain more than one answer.
  • Do this question at last. Each text will have several types of questions attached to it. If you do the matching information question last, you will have a good understanding of the passage by the time you get to it. This will make it easier and quicker to complete.
  • This is not matching heading so you may not find your answer in the first and last sentence of the paragraph always
  • You need to be aware of synonyms
  • Search for the questions with names, numbers, places and dates information to match first. It is more easy to locate them.
  • Read the questions before you read the options
  • The answers will be in the same order as the text
  • Eliminating the 50% of the option should not be hard and for the rest 50% use qualifiers and distractors to match the answerE.g. Everyone who ate the prawn sandwiches at the party was ill.Most people who ate the prawn sandwiches at the party were ill.
  • The skills that you use in MCQ are skimming scanning and reading for details.
  • If you know nothing about the topic, don’t panic. It is a reading test, not a test of your knowledge.
  • Before deciding on your answer, always go back and carefully read the questions before making your final decision.
  • You might be asked about both facts and opinions. Facts are things that are always true or cannot be disproved but opinions are just what people think.
  • In case, you don’t find the answer just make an educated guess. You don’t lose score for your wrong answer.
  1. You need not read the whole text in detail, just the part that is summarised, so scanning is the best skill.
  2. The answers are usually in the same order in the text as the order of the missing words.
  3. Take care of the word limit, e.g. NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS.
  4. When you’ve entered your answer, check the sentence to ensure that it is grammatically correct. Should the gap be filled with a verb, noun, adjective or adverb? If your answer makes the sentence grammatically wrong, then you have the wrong answer.
  5. Look for synonyms and paraphrases in the text rather than words that directly match.
  6. If it is the summary with answers, there will be more words in the list than there are gaps in the summary to fill so you won’t need them all.
  7. Cross the wrong answer through in pencil which does not fit the grammar
  8. If you’re struggling to find a specific missing word, take an educated guess and move on.
AnswerKeywordsLocationExplanation
14. Emisused, bike-sharingPara E, Line 4
Read this “The system was prone to vandalism and theft”.

Here, system means the bike-sharing scheme and theft and vandalism means misuse.
15. Cproposed bike-sharing scheme, turned downPara C, line 6Read this “. . .. Nevertheless, the the council unanimously rejected the plan, ‘They said that the bicycle belongs to the past. They saw a glorious future for the car,’. … .”

Here, rejected means turned down; paragraph C gives explanation of why a proposed bike-sharing scheme was turned down.
16. Fperson being unable, profitPara FRead this “… But financially I didn’t really benefit from it, because I never filed for a patent.”

Here, financially I didn’t really benefit from it has similar meaning that unable to profit and it means the bike-sharing schemes.
17. Cpotential savingsRead this “ . .. . It turned out that a white bicycle – per person, per kilometre – would cost the municipality only 10% of what it contributed to public transport  per person, per kilometre.’. .. .”

This suggests that the benefits of the scheme were much greater than the cost, hence it would save a lot of resources. Here, would cost the municipality only 10% means that potential savings is 90%.
18. Aproblems, intended to solvePara A, line 3Read this “ . . .They believed the scheme, which was known as the Witte Fietsenplan, was an to the perceived threats of air pollution and consumerism.”

Hence, air pollution and consumerism are two problems that the scheme was intended to solve.
19 & 20. B & DAmsterdam bike-sharing scheme of 1999Para D, line 7This, combined with the success of the Danish bike-sharing scheme, led to the introduction of the new Amsterdam scheme in 1999. In other words, it was made possible by a change in people‟s attitudes.Thus, D is one correct

Now Read line 7 “. . But the biggest blow came when Postbank decided to abolish the chip card, because it wasn’t profitable.. .. . .”  This was “the biggest blow” to the scheme, and the scheme could not continue. Therefore, B is correct.
21 & 22. D & EAmsterdam todayPara G, line 2 & 6Read this “In Amsterdam today.. ..”. At first, take a look at lines 2-3, “it is regarded as one of the two most cycle-friendly capitals in the world”, which means Amsterdam is known as a place that welcomes cyclists. Thus, E is correct.

Again, look at lines 6-7, “.. . People who travel on the underground don’t carry their bikes around. But often they need additional transport to reach their final destination.” People using the underground are often the residents using public transport‟, and they would benefit from the scheme. Thus, D is correct.
23. activistsDutch group ProvoPara A, line 2Read this “.. .Provo, the organisation that came up with the idea, was a group of Dutch activists who wanted to change society.”

Provo was a group of Dutch activists so activists is answer.
24. consumerismconcerned damage, environmentPara A, Line 3Read this “…They believed the scheme, which . .. . .. . ., was an answer to the perceived threats of air pollution and consumerism.”

This means that they are concerned about these two problems, and suggested a solution. Because air pollution means a damage to the environment, answer should be consumerism.
25. leafletswhite, use of carsPara A, line 5Now read this “… . . In the centre of Amsterdam, they painted a small number of used bikes white. They also distributed leaflets describing the dangers of cars . . .. .. ..”

 It is stated that Provo activists distributed leaflets describing the dangers of cars which means leaflets disapproved (or condemned) the use of cars.
26. policescheme, quickly, success, provoPara B, line 4Read this “The police were opposed to Provo’s initiatives and almost as soon as soon as the white bikes were distributed around the city, they removed them.”

It means that police removed as soon as the white bikes were distributed around the city.

Answer of Motivational Factors and the Hospitality Industry with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 1: Passage 3 is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

Answer of Motivational Factors and the Hospitality Industry

  1. The answers appear in the same order in the text as the order of the statements.
  2. Identify any words that qualify the statement, for example some, all, mainly, often, always and occasionally. These words are there to test if you have read the whole statement because they can change the meaning.
  3. Be careful when you see verbs that qualify statements, such as suggest, claim, believe and know. For example, ‘The man claimed he was a British citizen,’ and ‘The man is a British citizen’ mean two different things.
  4. Watch out for distractions. Know that the test setters love to use ‘distractions’ to test you. A prime example is qualifying words such as:-Ram often goes to the gym. Ram occasionally goes to the gym.
  5. There will be at least one of each answer type – Yes, No, Not Given. So, if you don’t have at least one of each when you’ve completed the question, you’ve made a mistake.
  6. You don’t need to read the whole text. First, you will scan for keywords and then you’ll read in detail the section in which they’re located to find the answer.
  7. Don’t look for words that exactly match those in the statements. You should also look for synonyms. Remember that you are matching meaning, not words.
  8. If you can’t find the information you are looking for, then it is probably ‘not given’. Don’t waste time looking for something that is not there.
AnswerKeywordsLocationExplanation
27. Emanagers, encourage, staff, Para 9, line 1No direct keywords so search for the synonyms; inspire = encourage, retention = to remain, staff = employee.

Read this “. .. It is essential for hotel management to develop HRM practices that enable them to inspire and retain competent employees.”

This implies that it is beneficial for hotels managers to understand what practices are most favourable to increase employee satisfaction and retention.” Hence the answer is E.
28. Dmanagers, staff, different, employerPara 5, line 1Keywords like managers, employees are obvious in paragraph 5.

Now Read this “Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company.”

Listed above are the actions of managers, and these actions make employees feel that they should stay with the company and shouldn’t move to another employer (employees feel more obligated to stay with the company). Hence, D is the answer.
29. Bhospitality, help workers, imporve skillsPara 4, line 1No direct keywords so search for the synonyms; hone= improve, potential= skills, foster= develop, help.

Now Read this “Lucas also points out that ‘the substance of HRM practices does not appear to be designed to foster constructive relations with employees or to represent a management approach that enables developing and drawing out the full potential of people, . .. .”

The lines implies that such HRM practices does very little (or nothing) to help the employees hone (sharpen or improve) their full potential (skills). Hence B is the answer.
30. Dstaff, jobs, cooperationPara 5, line 1Keywords like cooperation= work together, employees are obvious in paragraph 5.

Now read this “Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company.”

Here, recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, all these mean cooperation which are encouraged by managers.
31. CDissatisfaction, only reason, hospitality workers change jobs Para 9 & 10Keywords like dissatisfaction, reason= factors are obvious in paragraph 9 & 10.

Now read the sentence from para 9 “When these factors are unfavourable, job dissatisfaction may result. Significantly, though, just fulfilling these needs does not result in satisfaction,but only in the reduction of dissatisfaction.”

Then, in paragraph no. 10, “Employees also have intrinsic motivation needs or motivators, which include such factors as achievement and recognition. Unlike extrinsic factors, motivator factors may ideally result in job satisfaction.”

These paragraphs combinely suggest that job dissatisfaction does not come only from pay(9th para), also it may arise from other factors such as achievement and recognition (10th para). Hence, c.
32. YESstaff turnover, poor moralePara 4, line 4Now read this “In addition, or maybe as a result, high employee turnover has been a recurring problem throughout the hospitality industry. Among the many cited reasons are low compensation, inadequate benefits, poor working conditions and compromised employee morale and attitudes.

Hence it is true.
33. Nostaff, dislike, workplacePara 6Search for Keywords and their synonyms that are obvious in para 6; staff= employee, dislike= view negatively, workplace= work environment.

Now read this “While it seems likely that employees’ reactions to their job characteristics could be affected by a predisposition to view their work environment negativelyno evidence exists to support this hypothesis.”

No evidence exists to support this hypothesis clarifies the point that there is no proof that workers view their workplace negatively. The information contradicts with the given question, hence no.
34. Noimprovement, working conditions, job security, satisfiedPara 9Search for the key words like conditions= factors, fulfilling= improving, satisfaction that are obvious in para 9.

Now read the sentence from para 9 “When these factors are unfavourable, job dissatisfaction may result. Significantly, though, just fulfilling these needs does not result in satisfaction,but only in the reduction of dissatisfaction.”

Here, these means “Improving working conditions” and “job security”. So just fulfilling these does not make staff satisfied with their jobs. Hence, No.
35. Not GivenThere is NO INFORMATION regarding taking breaks in this passage.
36. restaurantsTews, Michel and StaffordPara 11, line 1Now read this “For example, Tews, Michel and Stafford (2013) conducted a study focusing on staff from a chain of themed restaurants in the United States.
37. performancedesigned for staff, have fun, improved  Para 11, line 3Read this line “ It was found that fun activities had a favourable impact on performance . . .. .”
38. turnovermanagement involvement, lowerPara 11, line 4Now read the line “. . .. and manager support for fun had a favourable impact in reducing turnover.”

Here, “manager support for fun” can be paraphrased into “manager involvement”.
39. & 40.
Goals & Characteristics
fit with both, company’sPara 11, line 4Search for the keywords and synonyms: fit with means aligned with, company is synonym for organization, and staff means employee.

Now read the line “Their findings support the view that fun may indeed have a beneficial effect, but the framing of that fun must be carefully aligned with both organizational goals and employee characteristics.”

Hence the two factors(both) are goals and characteristics.

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