QUESTIONS 16 and 17
- Answer: 80. The answer is at the end of the fourth paragraph. You simply need to scan the text for the words Lex Report and also for a percentage.
- Answer: 90. The answer is at the beginning of the fifth paragraph. Again like number 16, you simply need to scan the text for the words RAC Survey and also for a percentage.
These two questions are particularly easy as you just have to scan the text for references to particular items. The questions do not ask you to analyse any particular part of the text.
- Answer: Yes. The answer to this question is in the seventh paragraph:
The 1991 Road Traffic Act takes a very dim view indeed of dangerous and careless driving and, as with assaults, provides stiff custodial sentences for those guilty of such crimes. To date, however, there is no such offence in the statute books known as ‘Road Rage’. There can be assaults or criminal damage followed or preceded by dangerous driving, but no offence that incorporates both – a change in the law which the public are crying out for in the face of increasing anarchy on the roads. The statement in the exercise is basically a paraphrase of the text in italics. When you are scanning, you need to look out for references to Road Rage and information about whether it breaks the law, violates the law, or is a violation of the law. To do the first is not easy, because the phrase ‘Road Rage’ occurs many times in the passage. To scan for the latter is even more difficult, because you are searching for an idea that appears in another form. It is like seeing a person whom
you do not know very well out of context or wearing different clothes. It is sometimes difficult to recognise them. Scanning a text for ideas in the form of a paraphrase rather than specific words or phrases requires an advanced level of vocabulary and flexibility in English. If you are aware of the need to develop this skill, it will help you in doing not just this type of exercise, but many of the other exercises you have to deal with in the IELTS exam.
- Answer: Yes. The answer to this question is in the second paragraph:
A psychologist, employed by the Royal Automobile Club (RAC) defines ‘Road Rage’, thus: ‘unchecked behaviour designed to cause harm to another road user; behaviour which is not normally in the behavioural repertoire of the person. ‘Road Rage’ is an altering of an individual’s personality whilst driving caused by a process of dehumanisation. This dehumanisation is caused by road use frustrations and an artificial sense of insulation, protection and empowerment provided by the car. This leads the person to behave in a
way designed to cause harm or endanger other road users.’ Note that again you have to scan the text to find information relating to the psychologist and then the idea of cars making
drivers feel artificially safe.
- Answer: Not Given. The writer mentions that he is a motorcycle instructor, (The end of paragraph 3), but nowhere in the passage does he say that he thinks motorcycling is exciting or safe.
- Answer: Not Given. The answer is in the fourth paragraph:
- Answer: Not Given. See the first sentence of paragraph 5. The writer mentions that the RAC has much to say about it (‘Road Rage’), i.e. it talks about the quantity of the survey, but the writer does not talk about the quality i.e. whether the survey is thorough, or otherwise.
- Answer: No. The answer is at the end of the first paragraph:
To many people the term ‘Road Rage ’ describes a relatively modem concept of drivers ‘getting worked up due to some incident whilst on the road and resorting to physical violence or damage to property’. Most people would say that this has only really become a problem in the last five years or so. It has certainly become of great media interest in recent times, but it has, in fact, been part of motoring for quite some time now.
- Answer: uphill struggle. You need to scan the text for the word professionals. See the fourth paragraph from the end.
- Answer: Stiffer penalties/Stiffer sentencing. The first answer is in the third paragraph from the end. The sentence is a simple paraphrase and again you scan the text for the word courts. For Stiffer sentencing see the last sentence of the text.
- Answer: male preserve. The answer is in paragraph 9. The sentence is a paraphrase of the words in bold below: Most of us probably imagine violence on the road to be an entirely male preserve, as men are naturally more competitive and aggressive, especially when it comes to driving. It is a little bit more difficult to scan the text for the information here, as it is an idea that you are looking for rather than a specific marker like a word or phrase as in 24 or 25.
- Answer: interest and reporting. The answer is in paragraph 8. To find the answer, you scan the text for the words Association of Chief Police Officers. The phrase causing unnecessary anxiety does not fit in here, because to fit the phrase into the blank space you would have to make the word media into a noun and put an article in front of it: the media. In the exercise sentence, media is an adjective and is the clue to the answer. The text says:
There have been suggestions from the Association that media interest and reporting are, in fact, creating the problem by causing unnecessary anxiety in the minds of the motoring public in a direct analogy with fear of crime.
The sentence in the exercise is a paraphrase of the text in italics. The phrase causing unnecessary anxiety tells you how the problem is created, whereas media interest and reporting tells you what the Association think are responsible for creating driver confrontation. Note that as in the previous section the questions are not in the order that the information appears in the text.
QUESTIONS 28 and 29
- Answer: C. The answer to this question is in paragraph 9. The alternative is a paraphrase of the text:
Women can be more aggressive in cars than they ever would be when they’re walking along the street. Alternative A is not correct, because the text does not say that cars make all women stronger. It says: It makes some women feel stronger than they really are.
As for B, ‘can’ contains the idea of ‘sometimes’, not ‘frequently’. Answer D is wrong, because the opposite is possibly true:
…you could even argue that smaller or weaker people, who might be victims when they are out of their cars, often feel they can even things up a bit when they are behind the wheel.
Remember the text is talking about women here.
- Answer: B. The answer is in the last paragraph. The inclination for many students is to give D as the answer.
This is a value judgement, as it implies that you have a standard against which to measure the writer’s statement in the last paragraph. If you choose too pessimistic, you are judging the statement against your own opinion. The question asks you to summarise the writer’s view; you are not expected to give your own opinion unless you are asked to do so.
C is wrong because the text does not indicate whether the author is depressed about the situation or not.
A is obviously wrong.