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Answers for A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently

In this post, we are dealing with the third passage from the book IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 2 Reading Passage 3/ IELTS Cambridge 9 AC Test 2 READING. All answers along with keywords, location in the passage, and their explanation have been detailed to help students finding a correct way to answer A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently.

Solution with Explanation: Answer for A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently

Solution

27. C34. NOT GIVEN
28. B35. NO
29. D36. NOT GIVEN
30. C37. NO
31. B38. A
32. YES39. B
33. YES40. C

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Explanation

Q.No27
KeywordsNeuroeconomics, seeks to,
Locationfirst paragraph, the writer says in lines 3-5
ExplanationRead this “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.”

The lines suggest that neuroeconomics is the field of study that looks for understanding the link between brain and creativity that leads to achievement in different competitions.
Here, success = achievements
So, the answer is: C (understand how brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields)
Q.No28
Keywordsiconoclasts, distinctive, because,
Locationparagraph no. 2 lines 1-3
ExplanationTake a look at, “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.”

The lines indicate that iconoclasts are different from other people (distinctive) because their brains works differently.
So, the answer is: B (their brains function differently)
Q.No29
Keywordsbrain, works efficiently, because,
Locationparagraph 3, lines 3-6
ExplanationRead this, “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information… . ”

So, according to the passage, the brain functions quickly because it depends on events of the past.
Here, quickly = in the quickest way, depends on = draw on, events of the past = past experience,
So, the answer is: D (it relies on previous events)
Q.No30
Keywords perception,   
Locationparagraph no. 3, last lines
ExplanationTake a close look at the end of “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

The lines indicate that perception is the outcome/product of the brain.
So, the answer is: C (a result of brain processes)
Q.No31
Keywordsiconoclastic thinker,   
LocationParagraph 4
ExplanationRead this line, “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.”

Here, work around = avoid, perpetual shortcuts that plague = cognitive traps,
So, the answer is: B (avoids cognitive traps)
Q.No32
Keywordsexposure, different events, forces, think differently,   
LocationParagraph 4, line 1
ExplanationRead this “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

Here, think differently = make new judgments, exposure to different event = to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before.
So, the answer is: YES
Q.No33
Keywordsiconoclasts, usually, receptive, new experiences,   
LocationParagraph no. 5, lines 3-4
ExplanationIn, where the author says, “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different.”

Here, have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed = unusually receptive, fresh and different = new experiences,
So, the answer is: YES
Q.No34
Keywordsmost people, too shy, try, different things,
Location
ExplanationFrom this passage we just learn that people avoid such things or activities which they try to avoid. However, the writer does not mention whether most of the people are shy too try different things or not.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN   
Q.No35
Keywords exposure, different events, forces, think differently,  
Locationparagraph no. 6, in lines 2-3
ExplanationIt is stated that, “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.”

This means fear works as a blockade against thinking like an iconoclast. So, if someone thinks like an iconoclast, he/she cannot overcome fear.
So, the statement is contradictory.
So, the answer is: NO
Q.No36
Keywordsiconoclasts, usually, receptive, new experiences,  
Location
ExplanationThere is no information in relation with embarrassment being more or less.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Q.No37
Keywordsmost people, too shy, try, different things,
Locationparagraph no. 6. Here, in lines 5-7
ExplanationRead this line , “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.”

Here, too common to be considered a mental disorder = so common that it cannot be considered a psychological illness,
So, the statement in the passage contradicts with the question.
So, the answer is: NO 
Q.No38
Keywordshinking like, successful iconoclast, demanding, because,    
Locationparagraph no. 7, lines 1-2
ExplanationRead this line, “. .. . to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence come in.” Here, we can understand that successful iconoclasts need social intelligence. Then, in lines 7-8, we find the reference of perceptual skills, “Perception is important in social cognition too…”.

Finally, in the last lines, the writer talks about the demand of thinking like a successful iconoclast, “Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.”
Here, rare = demanding
So, the answer is: A (requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills)
Q.No39
Keywordsconcept, social brain, useful, iconoclasts, because,     
Locationparagraph no. 7, take a look at lines 3-7
ExplanationRead this “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.”

So, the lines suggest that the concept of ‘social brain’ plays key roles (is useful) to iconoclasts as these brain regions focuses on group-decision making.
Here, groups decide on an action = groups coordinate decision making
So, the answer is: B (focuses on how groups decide on an action)
Q.No40
Keywordsiconoclasts, generally, asset, because, way of thinking,
LocationLast paragraph, line 1-4
ExplanationRead this line, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.”

The lines indicate that iconoclasts are an asset because their process of thinking works in artistic and scientific fields.
So, the answer is: C (works in many fields, both artistic and scientific)

Passage for the Answer of A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently

A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently

1 In the last decade, a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists think about the brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics, which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say can’t be done.

2. This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence. Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit in the brain.

Naysayers might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of personality than brain function. But the field of neuroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical workings of the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different drumbeat.

3. The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast. For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible.

Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings. Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.

4. Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently from other people. Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person’s brain. Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain.

It is a learned process, which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses. Everything the brain sees hears or touches has multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain’s best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say.

5. The best way to see things differently from other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments. Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.

6. The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain’s fear system. Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find it difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias.

But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.

7. Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in. Social intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade, there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity.

These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of someone’s enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.

8. Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren’t important to them. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be a major asset to any organization. It is crucial for success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.

Questions : A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently

Questions (27-31)

A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently (27-31)

Choose the correct letter A. B. C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to
     A. cause a change in how scientists understand brain chemistry.
     B. understand how good decisions are made in the brain.
     C .understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.
     D. trace the specific firing patterns of neurones in different areas of the brain.
     
28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because
     A. they create unusual brain circuits.
     B. their brains function differently.
     C. their personalities are distinctive.
     D. they make decisions easily.

29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
    A. it uses the eyes quickly.
    B. it interprets data logically.
    C. it generates its own energy.
    D. it relies on previous events.

30. The writer says that perception is
     A. a combination of photons and sound waves.
     B. a reliable product of what your senses transmit.
     C. a result of brain processes.
     D. a process we are usually conscious of.

31. According to the writer an iconoclastic thinker
      A. centralizes perceptual thinking in one part of the brain.
      B. avoids cognitive traps.
      C. has a brain that is hardwired for learning.
      D. has more opportunities than the average person.

Questions 32-37

A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently (32-37)

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 50?
In boxes 32-37 on your answer sheet, write

 YES it the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
 NO it the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
 NOT GIVEN it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.
33. iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.
34. Most people are too shy to try different things.
35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.
37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Questions 38-40

A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently (38-40)

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below
Write the correct letter A-E, in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it.
39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it.
40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking.

  A.  requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.
  B.  focuses on how groups decide on an action.
  C. works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.
  D. leaves one open to criticism and rejection.
  E.  involves understanding how organizations manage people.

FAQ’s

How to answer question no 27-31 of a neuroscientists reveals how to think differently?

‘Multiple choice questions’ is a common type of question set in IELTS Reading test. It is also found in Listening test.  Most of the time, they come with four options but sometimes there are three options. Candidates need to work hard for this type of questions because this may confuse them easily in passage 2 or passage 3. There will be long answers for each question, so they may kill valuable time. So, quick reading or skimming technique might come handy here.  Remember that answers in 3 options out of 4 will be very close. So, vocabulary power will help a lot to choose the best answer. Click here to know more.

How to answer question no 32-37 of a neuroscientists reveals how to think differently?

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer. Click here to know more.

How to answer 38-40 of a neuroscientists reveals how to think differently?

For this type of question, candidates need to match the beginning and ending of sentences. Candidates need to look for keywords in the sentence-beginnings and find the relative paragraphs and then sentences in the passage. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type. Click here for more.

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9 Comments

  1. Practice more to finish it in 20 minutes. However, it takes more than 30 minutes, then this is a big problem.ANY SUGGESTION?

  2. fifth paragraph MENTIONS , “Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.” Shouldn’t this mean that answer to Q. 34 is “nO gIVEN”?

  3. Answers for A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently is really helpful for me. Thanks. I did this may be five or six times.

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