Answers for “Disappearing Delta” with explanations

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Question 14-17:-
14. iv (part B, first 4 lines: ―B Up to now, people have blamed this loss oi delta land on the
two large dams at Aswan in the south of Egypt, which hold back virtually all of the
sediment that used to flow down the river‖)

15. i (part D, first 7 lines: ―Once north of Cairo, most oi the Nile water is diverted into more
than l0,000 kilometres of irrigation canals and only a small proportion reaches the sea
directly through the rivers in the delta. The water in the irrigation canals is still or very
slow-moving and thus cannot carry sediment, Stanley explains. The sediment sinks to‖)

16. v (part E, para 2, last 7 lines: ―dramatically. These poisons can easily enter the load chain,
affecting the productivity of fishing and farming. Another problem is that agricultural
wastes include fertilizers which stimulate increases in plant growth in the lagoons and
upset the ecology of the area, with serious effects on the fishing industry‖)

17. viii (part F, first 7 lines: ―According to Siegel, international environmental organisations
are beginning to pay closer attention to the region, partly because of the problems of
erosion and pollution of the Nile delta, but principally because they fear the impact this
situation could have on the whole Mediterranean coastal ecosystem. But there‖)

Question18-23:
18. YES (part A: ―The fertile land oi the Nile delta is being eroded along Egypt’s
Mediterranean coast at an astounding rate, in some parts estimated at 100 metres per year.
ln the past, land scoured away from the coastline by the currents of the Mediterranean
Sea used to be replaced by sediment brought dawn to the delta by the River Nile, but this
is no longer happening.‖)

19. NOT GIVEN

20. NO (part B, last 9 lines: ―area But when the Aswan dams were constructed in the 20th
century to provide electricity and irrigation, and to protect the huge population centre of
Cairo and its surrounding areas from annual flooding and drought, most of the sediment
with its natural fertilizer accumulated up above the dam in the southern, upstream half of
Lake Nasser, instead of passing down to the delta.‖)

21. YES (part C, line 6-11: ―of the Smithsonian Institute noticed that water samples taken in
Cairo, just before the river enters the delta, indicated that the river sometimes carries
more than 850 grams oi sediment per cubic metre of water – almost half of what it carried
before the dams were built.‖)

22. NOT GIVEN

23. YES (part D, line 7-10: ―sediment, Stanley explains. The sediment sinks to the bottom oi
the canals and then is added to fields by farmers or pumped with the water into the tour
large freshwater lagoons that are‖)

Question 24-26:
24. F- ‗pollutants‘ (part E, para 1, line 3-8: ―Egypt’s Food supply. But by the time the
sediment has come to rest in the fields and lagoons it is laden with municipal, industrial
and agricultural waste from the Cairo region, which is home to more than 40 million
people. ‗Pollutants are building up faster and luster,‗ says Stanley.‖)

25. A – artificial flood (part F, line 8-10: ―are no easy solutions. ln the immediate future,
Stanley believes that one solution would be to make artificial Hoods to flush out the
delta‖)

26. B – desalination (part F, line 13-15: ―however, that in the long term an alternative process
such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available‖)

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