Answers of European Transport Systems 1990-2010 with Explanation

Answer of European Transport Systems 1990-2010 with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 10, Reading Test 1: Passage 1 and is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

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Answer of European Transport Systems 1990-2010 with Explanation is divided into three parts for your ease of navigating answer, passage, and questions, all at the same time.

Answer of European Transport Systems 1990-2010 with Explanation

  • The answers will not come in the same order in the text as the order of the list of statements.
  • You may not need to read all paragraphs, first see the question which states the paragraphs you need to find headings for
  • The answer, sometimes, will not necessarily be in the main idea of a paragraph
  • Do this question first.
  • Expect lots of synonyms.
  • You can narrow down the match of statement and paragraph by a process of elimination. For any specific statement, there will be options that are clearly not a match.
  • Take more time than other questions to complete.
  • There are more headings than paragraphs.
  • Headings that only include specific details rather than the main idea may mislead you
  • Do not try to match the heading with the same words that are in the paragraph.
  • The first sentence is not always enough to find a perfect heading.
  • Pay attention to the headings that are similar to one another.
  • Skim the paragraph to get a general idea.
  • You should either use numerals (i.e., i or v) or letters (i.e., a, b, c) when listing the headings
  • Read all the headings before picking anyone.
  • The answers appear in the same order in the text as the order of the statements
  • You don’t need to read the whole text. First, you will scan for keywords and then you’ll read in detail the section in which they’re located for the answer.
  • Underline the key words in first two question. Why first two questions? If you miss locating one, you need another to stop you and think, either you have missed it or it’s not given.
  • There will be at least one of each answer type – True, False, Not Given. So, if you don’t have at least one of each when you’ve completed the question, you’ve made a mistake.
  •  Identify any words that qualify the statement, for example, some, all, mainly, often, always and occasionally. These words are there to test if you have read the whole statement because they can change the meaning. For example, ‘Coca-Cola has always made its drinks in the U.S.A.’ has a different meaning from ‘Coca-Cola has mainly made its drinks in the U.S.A.’
  • The statements won’t be a word-for-word match to the information in the text. They will contain synonyms and paraphrasing. It’s the meaning that you are trying to match.
  • Remember that at least one answer will be NG. This means that you will be searching for information that is not there.
  • Don’t answer based on your assumptions
  • If you can’t find the information you are looking for, then it is probably ‘not given’. Don’t waste time looking for something that is not there.
  • If you have no idea what the answer is put ‘not given’. You probably have no idea because the answer is not there.
  • Don’t write yes for True, No for false.
14 viii“The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, … .. . ..”
This means that the requirement  for  vehicles  continues  to  rise.
15 iiiAs  far  as  goods  transport  is  concerned, growth  is  due  to  a  large  extent  to  changes  in  the  European  economy  and  its  system  of  production. Then,  the  author  indicates  that  these  changes  cause  some  production  sites  to  be  relocated  far  away from  the  final  assembly  plant  or  away  from  users  –  perhaps  even hundreds  or  even  thousands  of kilometres away‟.

This means that these changes affect the transport distances. So, the correct heading for paragraph B is iii.
16 xiIn paragraph C, the author provides many transport statistics, or transport trends, in some countries which  are  “candidates  for  entry  to  the  EU”.   The  trends  include  an  increase  in  road  haulage  and  a decrease in  rail  haulage. 

These countries are awaiting admission to  become members of the EU. 
17 iIn paragraph D, after the first line “A new imperative sustainable development- offers an opportunity for adapting the EU’s common  transport  policy.. .. ”, we find the word objective. 
And in the last line we find the time needed to implement the objective “… in 30 years’ time.”

Here, Objective = goal, 30 years’ time = long-term

Hence, paragraph D is about fresh and important long-term goal.
18. vIn  paragraph  E,  it explains that COemissions are projected to rise by 50% by 2020 because of the increase in traffic.

The environmental cost of road transport= the environmental effect of road transport
19. xparagraph  G focuses on the first solution which focuses on  road transport solely through pricing. In the short term, this  approach might “curb the growth in road transport”. 

Here, charging = pricing , alone = solely, restrict = curb.
20. iiParagraph H is about the second solution to achieve transport balance. This approach “concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology.)”.

Here, charging=pricing ,improve=increase the efficiency of
transport, methods=transport modes.
21. ivIn  paragraph  I,  “the  third  approach  comprises  a  series  of  measures  ranging  from  pricing  to revitalising  alternative  modes  of  transport  and  targeting  investment  in  the  trans-European  network”. This  means  that  the  third  approach  may  change  transport  patterns. 
22 truegrowing, technological developments,Para ASearch for the synonyms and Keywords:In this paragraph,
requirement = need” “rise = grow” “information technologies = technological developments.”

Now read this line “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and tele services, the requirement for transport continues to rise.” 
23 falsereduce production costs, closer to customersPara BNow read this line “This  phenomenon  has  been  emphasized by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site  is  hundreds or even  thousands  of  kilometres  away  from  the  final assembly or away from users.”

Which means that some industries are moved much far away from their relevant customers.
24 Not givenprohibitively expensive, countries.Para CThe author does not provide any information about the price of these countries‟ cars or indicate whether they are expensive or not.
25 not givenGothenburg,
30 years ago

The Gothenburg European Council only appears in paragraph D, but the author does not mention when it was established or how long it has been  in existence.
26 falsethe end of this decade, 739 billion tonnes,
Now read this line, “…,  CO2  emissions  from  transport  can  be  expected  to increase by 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990.
So, 739  billion  tonnes  is  the  figure  for  CO2  emissions in 1990, not “by the end of this decade”.

Passage for the Answer of European Transport Systems 1990-2010

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