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# Answers for “Information theory- the big idea” With explanation

Answers for “Attitudes of language” With explanation

Answers for “Tidal Power” With explanation

Question27-32:-
27. D (para D, line 2-5: ―Information theory generalises this idea via theorems that capture
the effects of noise with mathematical precision. In particular, Shannon showed that noise
sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication channels
while remaining error-free. This rate depends on the relative strengths of the signal‖)

28. F (para F, line 3-4: ―information. As mobile phone text messages like ‗I CN C U‘ show, it
is often possible to leave out a lot of data without losing much meaning. As with error
correction‖)

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29. B (para B, line 6-7: ―computer technology when still a student. While at Bell
Laboratories, Shannon developed information theory, but shunned the resulting acclaim.
In the 1940s‖)

30. E (para E, line 2-5: ―proved crucial in many technological feats. The Voyager spacecraft
transmitted data using codes which added one extra bit for every single bit of
information; the result was an error rate of just one bit in 10,000 — and stunningly clear
pictures of the planets. Other codes have become part of everyday life — such as the
Universal‖)

31. A (para A, line 2-7: ―of information theory. The space probe, Voyager I, launched in
1977, had sent back spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared out of the
Solar System on a one-way mission to the stars. After 25 years of exposure to the
freezing temperatures of deep space, the probe was beginning to show its age. Sensors
and circuits were on the brink of failing and NASA experts realised that they had to do
something or lose contact with their probe forever. The solution was to get a message to
Voyager‖)

32. C (para C, line 5-7: ―of ‗information‘. The most basic form of information, Shannon
argued, is whether something is true or false — which can be captured in the binary unit,
or ‗bit‘, of the form 1 or O. Having identified this fundamental unit, Shannon set about
defining‖)

Question 33-37:
33. Jupiter & Saturn (para A, line 2-3: ―of information theory. The space probe, Voyager I,
launched in 1977, had sent back spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared
out of the Solar System on a‖)

34. Solar system (para A, line 3: ―spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared
out of the Solar System on a‖)

35. Sensors & circuits (para A, line 4-6: ―one-way mission to the stars. After 25 years of
exposure to the freezing temperatures of deep space, the probe was beginning to show its
age. Sensors and circuits were on the brink of failing and NASA experts realised that they

36. Spares (para A, line 7-8: ―lose contact with their probe forever. The solution was to get a
message to Voyager I to instruct it to use spares to change the failing parts. With the
probe 12 billion‖)

37. Radio dish (para A, line 9-10: ―kilometres from Earth, this was not an easy task. By
means of a radio dish belonging to NASA‘s Deep Space Network, the message was sent
out into the depths of space‖)

Question 38-40:-
38. TRUE (para C, line 5-7: ―of ‗information‘. The most basic form of information, Shannon
argued, is whether something is true or false — which can be captured in the binary unit,
or ‗bit‘, of the form 1 or O. Having identified this fundamental unit, Shannon set about
defining‖)

39. TRUE (para D, line 2-6: ―Information theory generalises this idea via theorems that
capture the effects of noise with mathematical precision. In particular, Shannon showed
that noise sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication
channels while remaining error-free. This rate depends on the relative strengths of the
signal and noise travelling down the communication channel, and on its capacity (its
‗bandwidth‘)

40. FALSE (para E, last 4 lines: ―crisps. As recently as 1993, engineers made a major
breakthrough by discovering so-called turbo codes — which come very close to
Shannon‘s ultimate limit for the maximum rate that data can be transmitted reliably, and
now play a key role in the mobile videophone revolution‖)

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