Answers for “Music and the emotions” with explanation

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Answers for “Music and the emotions” with explanation

 Answers  Keywords  Location  Explanation
27. dopamine

 

music, neurons paragraph 2 line 12 The first thing they discovered is that music triggers the production of dopamine— a chemical with a key role in setting people’s moods— by the neurons .. .. . …..
  • Meaning that the substance which is released by the brain’s neurons is called dopamine.
28. pleasure

 

two of the parts, are associated  Paragraph 2, Last line As these two regions have long been linked with the experience of pleasure,…..”.
  • Two regions = two of the parts
  • Linked with = associated with
  • Experience = feeling
29. caudate
observed, neurons, in the area of the brain, called P3, L 1 What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate— a region of the brain…….
  • observed = found
  • in the area of the brain = a region of the brain
30. anticipatory phase
active, just before, participants’ favourite  P3, L3  … . .. .  — were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music.

The researchers call this the ‘anticipatory  phase’…. .. .

31. food
activity, associated with, reward stimuli, such as P3, L 3 … .. .in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli—…”
  • anticipating = expectation
32. B
emphasise, first paragraph P1, L2,3,4 And yet, even though music says little, it manages to touch us deeply…………………………………. .sound stirs us at our biological roots.
  • meaning that sound of music touches us very intensely.
33. C
view of, Montreal study, second paragraph P2, L2,3 …………. in revealing the precise underpinnings of the potent pleasurable stimulus’ that is music.
  • It means that the Montreal Study has produced some precise data about music and pleasure
34. A
Interesting, the results, Montreal Study paragraph 3, line 1 What is rather more significant….. …………………..—were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music.
  • Meaning that the interesting matter is the time of neuron’s response.
35. B
Why, refer to, Meyer’s work In paragraph 4 the writer describes in lines 7-9, “This is why composers often introduce a key note in the beginning of a song, spend most of the rest of the piece in the studious avoidance of the pattern, and then finally repeat it only at the end.”

Now, in paragraph 5, the writer talks about Meyer’s work and thus supports what is said in paragraph 4. ….. … . .showing how Beethoven begins with the clear statement of a rhythmic and harmonic pattern and then, in an ingenious tonal dance, carefully holds off repeating it……. .. .. .. Beethoven saves that chord for the end.

36. D
Leonard Meyer, causes, listener’s  P6, line 4 Meyer argued that the emotions we find in music come from the unfolding events of the music itself.
  • itself= internal composition
37. F

 

Montreal researchers, discovered P3, Line 3 —were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music.

This means that Montreal researchers have found that dopamine neuron becomes more active prior to (around 15 seconds before) the participants’ favourite moments in the music.

38. B

 

Many studies, demonstrated P4, L6 Numerous studies, after all, have demonstrated that dopamine neurons quickly adapt to predictable rewards. If we know what’s going to happen next, then we don’t get excited.

It means neurons’ activity goes down if the results is predictable

39. E

 

Meyer’s analysis, Beethoven’s music P5, Line 7 What Beethoven does instead is suggest variation in the pattern………………chord for the end.
  • He delays in giving the specific chord what his listeners expect to hear.
40. C  Earlier theories, suggested Last paragraph, line 2 While the earlier theories of music focused on the way a sound can refer to the real world of images and experiences—……
  • real world of images and experiences= actual pictures and events.

 

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