Swipe Left and right on the table.
|14. B||Research, Beneficial effects, On people||Paragraph B, Line- 8-10||These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.”
Beneficial effects of oxytocin = oxytocin universally enhance the positive aspects: “More charitable, better at reading emotions, communicating constructively in arguments” are positive.
|15. F||Effects of Oxytocin, Complex||Paragraph F, Line- 1||“Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.” This means that the results of oxytocin are quite perplexing or complex.|
|16. B||Oxytocin, Attracted, Little scientific attention||Paragraph B, Line- 7||For eight years, it was quite a lonesome field.
Attracted little scientific attention = lonesome field
|17. E||Ignoring, Certain aspects, Research data||Paragraph E, Line- 3|| “where once researchers took no notice of such findings.”
Ignore = take no notice
|18. A||More trusting, Affected by Oxytocin||Paragraph B, Line- 1||“… In a groundbreaking experiment, Markus Heinrichs and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg, Germany, asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest. …These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.”|
|19. B||Oxytocin, Increases, Jealousy||Paragraph C, Line-|| “…those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.”
Envy = People’s feelings of jealousy
|20. C||Effect, Varies, From one type to another||Paragraph C, Line- 4||“…What’s more, administrating oxytocin also has sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition. Jennifer Bartz from Monti Sinai School of Medicine, New York found that it improves people’s ability to emotions, but only if they are not very socially adept to begin with.”
The effect of oxytocin varies = these basic processes could manifest in different ways.
|21. Animals||Earliest findings, Came from, Involving||Paragraph A, Line-||“…It was through various studies focusing on animals that scientists first became aware of the influence of oxytocin.”
Studies = research, Scientists first became aware = earliest finding
|22. Childbirth||Discovered, Humans produce oxytocin, During||Paragraph A, Line 5||“…It is also released by women in childbirth, strengthening the attachment between mother and baby.”|
|23. Placebo||2005, Either oxytocin, Reinforced, Positive effects||Paragraph B, Line- 4|| “… The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead…”
=The participants in the experiment were given either oxytocin or a placebo.
|24. Game||University of Haifa, Participants took part, Negative emotions||Paragraph C, Line- 2||“… found that when volunteers played a competitive game, those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.” This means participants who took part in a game, showed envy or jealousy which is a negative emotion. Took part in = play|
|25. Strangers||The University of Antwerp, Lack of willingness||Paragraph D, Line- 5||“Studies conducted by Carolyn Declerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, revealed that people who had received a dose of oxytocin actually became less cooperative when dealing with complete strangers.” Lack of willingness = less cooperative|
|26. Names||The University of Amsterdam, oxytocin, Familiar to them||Paragraph D, Line- 5||“…Meanwhile, Carsten De Dreu at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands discovered that volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism, Dutch men became quicker to associate positive words with Dutch names than with foreign ones, ….”|