Answers for “Oxytocin” with explanation

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Answers Keywords Location Explanation
14. B Research, Beneficial effects, On people Paragraph B, Line- 8-10 These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.”

Beneficial effects of oxytocin = oxytocin universally enhance the positive aspects: “More charitable, better at reading emotions, communicating constructively in arguments” are positive.

15. F Effects of Oxytocin, Complex Paragraph F, Line- 1 “Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.” This means that the results of oxytocin are quite perplexing or complex.
16. B Oxytocin, Attracted, Little scientific attention Paragraph B, Line- 7 For eight years, it was quite a lonesome field.
Attracted little scientific attention = lonesome field
17. E Ignoring, Certain aspects, Research data Paragraph E, Line- 3   “where once researchers took no notice of such findings.”
Ignore = take no notice
18. A More trusting, Affected by Oxytocin Paragraph B, Line- 1 “… In a groundbreaking experiment, Markus Heinrichs and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg, Germany, asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest.  …These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.”
19. B Oxytocin, Increases,  Jealousy Paragraph C, Line-  “…those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.”

Envy = People’s feelings of jealousy

20. C  Effect, Varies, From one type to another Paragraph C, Line- 4 “…What’s more, administrating oxytocin also has sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition. Jennifer Bartz from Monti Sinai School of Medicine, New York found that it improves people’s ability to emotions, but only if they are not very socially adept to begin with.”

The effect of oxytocin varies = these basic processes could manifest in different ways.
One type of person to another = individual difference

21. Animals Earliest findings, Came from, Involving Paragraph A, Line- “…It was through various studies focusing on animals that scientists first became aware of the influence of oxytocin.”

Studies = research,  Scientists first became aware = earliest finding

22.  Childbirth Discovered, Humans produce oxytocin, During Paragraph A, Line 5 “…It is also released by women in childbirth, strengthening the attachment between mother and baby.”
23. Placebo 2005,  Either oxytocin, Reinforced, Positive effects Paragraph B, Line- 4  “… The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead…”

=The participants in the experiment were given either oxytocin or a placebo.

24. Game University of Haifa, Participants took part, Negative emotions Paragraph C, Line- 2 “… found that when volunteers played a competitive game, those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.” This means participants who took part in a game, showed envy or jealousy which is a negative emotion.      Took part in = play
25. Strangers The University of Antwerp, Lack of willingness Paragraph D, Line- 5 “Studies conducted by Carolyn Declerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, revealed that people who had received a dose of oxytocin actually became less cooperative when dealing with complete strangers.” Lack of willingness = less cooperative
26. Names The University of Amsterdam, oxytocin, Familiar to them   Paragraph D, Line- 5 “…Meanwhile, Carsten De Dreu at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands discovered that volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism,  Dutch men became quicker to associate positive words with Dutch names than with foreign ones, ….”

 

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