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Answers for “The effects of light on plant and animals species” with explanations

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Question 27-33:
27. TRUE (para 2, line 5-7: ―predictable amount. The seasonal impact of day length on
physiological responses is called photoperiodism, and the amount of experimental
evidence for this phenomenon is considerable. For example, some species of birds‘
breeding can be induced even in midwinter‖)

28. TRUE (para 2, line 7-8: ―considerable. For example, some species of birds‘ breeding can
be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson I964).
Other examples of photoperiodism‖)

29. NOT GIVEN

30. FALSE (para 4, last 4 lines: ―as seeds. Day-neutral plants have an evolutionary advantage
when the connection between the favourable period for reproduction and day length is
much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever
suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length.‘)

31. FALSE (para 5, first 2 lines: ―The breeding season of some plants can be delayed to
extraordinary lengths. Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for
many years and then suddenly flower‖)

32. TRUE (para 5, line 5-6: ―and died between l9l6 and l9l8, which suggests a vegetative
cycle oi‘ about 3| years. The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known. but
the adaptive significance is clear‖)

33. FALSE (para 7, line 2-4: ―species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and
horticulture. Shade-tolerant plants have lower photosynthetic rates and hence have lower
growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species. Plant species become adapted to
living in a certain kind of habitat‖)

Question 34-40:
34. ‗temperatures‘ (para 2, line 2-5: ―needed to trigger breeding behaviour: Day length is an
excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the
year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, but
day length increases steadily by a predictable amount. The seasonal impact of day length
on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, and the amount of experimental
evidence for this phenomenon is‖)

35. ‗day-neutral‘ (plants) (para 2, last 2 lines: ―day length differs from species to species.
Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod. are
known as day-neutral plants‖)

36. ‗food/food resources/adequate food/ adequate food resources‘ (para 3, last 3 lines:
―young birds both when they are in die nest and after fledging. Thus many temperatezone birds use the Increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle,
because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured.‖)

37. ‗insects/fertilization by insects‘ (para 4, line 3: ―growing season. Long-day plants are
adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects.‖)

38. ‗rainfall/suitable rainfall‘ (para 4, last 2 lines: ―desert annuals germinate, flower and seed
whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length‖)

39. ‗sugarcane‘ (para 6, last 3 lines: ―responses of plants to variations in light intensity. Some
plants reach maximal photosynthesis at one-quarter full sunlight, and others, like
sugarcane. never reach a maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light
intensity rises‖)

40. ‗classification‘ (para 7, first 2 lines: ―Plants in general can be divided into two groups:
shade-intolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly
used in forestry and horticulture. Shade-tolerant‖)

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