Answers for “The History of the Tortoise” with Explanations

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William Henry Perkin

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Answers Keywords Location Explanation
27. plants transfer, animals migrate Paragraph 1; last sentence And we mustn’t forget the plants, without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could happen. “for the other migration to happen plants have to migrate first, before=prior”
28. two processes, big changes paragraph 2; 1st sentence Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction. “major redesign= big changes”
29. gills physical feature, whales lack paragraph 2; line 18 They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation. ” (earlier marine incarnation= ancestor), (lack=never developed)”
30. dolphins ichthyosaurs, resembled paragraph 3; line 15 The fossils look likedolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water. “the fossils= fossils of ichthyosaurs, look alike = resemble”
31. Not Given turtles, first animals, back, sea paragraph 2; last sentence However, they are…………their eggs on beaches. ” Whether turtles were among the first group of animals to migrate back to the sea or not is NOT mentioned”
32. FALSE always difficult, animal lived, remains, incomplete paragraph 3; line 9 You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found. Sometimes it‟s obvious. “incomplete= fragments, obvious= not difficult to determine”
33. TRUE ichthyosaurs, habitat, paragraph 3, line 13 and 14 Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossilslook like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water.”So, it is true that the habitat of ichthyosaurs can be determined by the appearance of their fossilised remains (surely= can be determined, habitat = live in water)”
34. measurements/three measurements 71 species, bones, forelimbs paragraph 4; 1st sentence Walter Joyce and Jacques Gauthier, at Yale University, obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises.
35. (triangular) graph recorded on a paragraph 4; line 5 They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another. “comparing the information= plot the three measurements against one another, recorded=plot”
36. cluster land tortoises, represented, dense paragraph 4; line 7 All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle. ” dense=tight, towards the top= upper part of the triangle”
37. amphibious same data, other results paragraph 4; There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on land. “spend time both in water and on land= amphibious, because the word limit is only two”
38. halfway positioned about, up the triangle paragraph 4; line 10 Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the „wet cluster‟ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises.
39. dry-land tortoises position, creatures paragraph 4; 2nd last sentence The bones of P.quenstedti and P.talampayensis leave us in no doubt. Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster. Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises
40. D Last paragraph; 1st line Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return. “therefore = most significant/ final, more than once= double”

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