Answers for “Whatever happened to the Harappan Civilization” with explanation

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27. C
Keyword(s): explanations (more than 1 explanation)
Explanation: Paragraph C: (1) ‘Some have claimed that major glacier-fed rivers changed their course (cause), dramatically affecting the water supply and agriculture’ (consequence)→ 1st
explanation; (2) ‘the cities could not cope with an increasing population (cause), they exhaust
their resource base, the trading economy broke down or they succumbed to invasion and conflict’ (likely consequences)→ 2 nd explanation;  (3) ‘climate change (cause) caused an environmental change that affected food and water provision’ (consequence) →3 rd explanation.

28. H
Keyword(s): present-day application = modern application
Explanation: Paragraph H, Petrie’s quote: ‘By investigating responses to environmental pressures and threats, we can learn from the past to engage with the public, and the relevant governmental and administrative bodies, to be more proactive in issues such as…’
→ to engage with means to make an effort to understand and deal with someone or something (MacMillan online dictionary)
→ to be proactive means taking action and making changes before they need to be made, rather than waiting until problems develop (MacMillan online dictionary)

29. A
Keyword(s): a difference = only 1 difference; another culture = only 1 other culture
Explanation: Paragraph A, ‘But their lack of self-imagery – at a time when the Egyptians were carving and painting representations of themselves all over the temples – is only part of the mystery.’ → the difference

30. B
Keyword(s): features (more than 1 feature), urban (in the city)
Explanation: Paragraph B, ‘As population increased, cities were built that had great baths, craft workshops, palaces and halls laid out in distinct sectors. Houses were arranged in blocks, with wide main streets and narrow alleyways, and many had their own wells and drainage systems.’

31. D
Keyword(s): errors (more than 1 error) made by previous archaeologists

Explanation: Paragraph D, ‘…found early in their investigations that many of the archaeological sites were not where they were supposed to be, … (→1 st error) When carried out a survey of how the larger area was settled in relation to sources of water, they found inaccuracies in the
published geographic locations of ancient settlements (→ 2 nd error)… They realized that any
attempt to use the existing data were likely to be fundamentally flawed. (→ Conclusion: previous findings were likely to be inaccurate from the beginning)

32. shells
Explanation: Paragraph E, ‘…the researchers gathered shells of Melanoides tuberculate snails from the sediments of an ancient lake and used geochemical analysis as a means…’
gathered → collecting; analysis (n) →analysing (gerund)

33. lake
Explanation: Paragraph E, ‘But we have observed that there was an abrupt change about 4,100 years ago, when the amount of evaporation from the lake exceeded the rainfall – indicative of a drought.’

34. rainfall
Similar to the above, the amount of evaporation exceeded the rainfall = there was more
evaporation than rainfall = there was less rainfall than evaporation.

35. grains
Explanation: Paragraph G, ‘Petrie and Singh’s team is now examining archaeological records and trying to understand details of how people led their lives in the region five millennia ago. They are analysing grains cultivated at the time…’
analyse → look at; at the time = five millennia ago

36. pottery
Explanation: Paragraph G, ‘They are also looking at whether the types of pottery used, and other aspects of their material culture, were distinctive to…’
other aspects of their material culture → visible objects apart from pottery

37. B – Ravindanath Singh
Explanation: Paragraph F, Singh’s quote: ‘Considering the vast area of the Harappan Civilisation with its variable weather systems, it is essential that we obtain more climate data from areas close to the two great cities at Mohenjodaro and Harappa and also from the Indian Punjab.’
It is essential → to be vital; obtain more climate data → find further information about changes to environmental conditions

38. A – Cameron Petrie
Explanation: Paragraph H, Petrie’s quote: ‘By investigating responses to environmental pressures and threats, we can learn from the past to engage with the public, and the relevant governmental
and administrative bodies, to be more proactive in issues such as…’
Investigating responses → examining previous patterns of behaviour
long-term benefits are in bold.

39. D – Yama Dixit
Explanation: Paragraph E, Dixit’s quote: ‘We estimate that the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon climate lasted about 200 years before recovering to the previous condition…’ estimate → rough calculations; the weakening.. lasted about 200 years → the approximate length of water shortage

40. A – Cameron Petrie
Explanation: Paragraph B, Petrie’s quote: ‘There is plenty of archaeological evidence to tell us about the rise of the Harappan Civilisation, but relatively little about its fall
relatively little → lacking; fall → decline

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