Answer of When Evolution Runs Backwards with Explanation

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Answer of When Evolution Runs Backwards with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 4: Passage 3 and is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

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Answer of When Evolution Runs Backwards with Explanation is divided into three parts for your ease of navigating answer, passage, and questions, all at the same time.

Answer of When Evolution Runs Backwards with Explanation

  • Read the questions before you read the options
  • The answers will be in the same order as the text
  • Eliminating the 50% of the option should not be hard and for the rest 50% use qualifiers and distractors to match the answerE.g. Everyone who ate the prawn sandwiches at the party was ill.Most people who ate the prawn sandwiches at the party were ill.
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  • If you know nothing about the topic, don’t panic. It is a reading test, not a test of your knowledge.
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  • You might be asked about both facts and opinions. Facts are things that are always true or cannot be disproved but opinions are just what people think.
  • In case, you don’t find the answer just make an educated guess. You don’t lose score for your wrong answer.
Answer27 C
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: theory, Louis Dollo
LocationLook in Para 3
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “….Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion. Then again, “Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards – it is just very unlikely.”

Here, they qualified it (theory of Louis Dollo.) in terms of probability.
Answer28 D
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: humpback whale, Vancouver Island
LocationLook in Para 4
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leg-like appendages over a metre long, complete with a set of limb bones, was caught off Vancouver Island in Canada. Explorer Roy Chapman Andrews argued at the time that the whale must be a throwback to a land-living ancestor.”

Here, humpback whale is mentioned because of its strange / unusual features.
Answer29 C
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: silent genes
LocationLook in Para 5
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “They reasoned that while some evolutionary changes involve the loss of genes and are therefore irreversible, others may be the result of genes being switched off. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, long-lost traits could reappear.”

 Meaning  that  ‘silent  genes’ could lead to the re-emergence of certain characteristics.
–     characteristics= traits
–     re-emerge=reappear
Answer30 B
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: mole salamander
LocationLook in Para 6
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “The salamander example fits with Raff’s 10-million-year time frame.”
Fits= matches, correct
This means that the example of mole salamander was given to prove that Raff’s theory was correct.
Answer31 A
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: Wagner, claim
LocationLook in Para 8
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “According to his (Wagner’s) analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors and, what is more, digit loss and gain has occurred on more than one occasion (several times) over tens of millions of years”

So, the lines suggest Wagner claims that members of the Bachia lizard family have lost and regained certain features more the one time.
Answer32 F
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: long time; biologists, rejected
– rejected = reluctant to use
– long time= better part of a century
LocationLook in Para 1
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those  words  (evolutionary  throwback),  mindful  of  a  principle  of  evolution  that  says  “evolution cannot  run  backwards”. 

In  other  words,  for  a  long  time,  most  biologists  rejected  the  possibility of evolution being reversible.
Answer33 G
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: opposing; evolutionary throwbacks
LocationLook in Para 3
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “While Lombroso was measuring criminals; a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion.”

This conclusion was that:   “there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards”.  The lines suggest that Lombroso and Dollo were studying different fields but they were also studying the same theory whether evolution could reappear. But their conclusions or findings were opposing.
Answer34 A
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: examples, evolutionary
LocationLook in Para 5
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “Since  then,  so  many  other  examples  have  been  discovered  that  it    no  longer makes  sense  to  say  that  evolution  is  as  good  as  irreversible.  And this poses a puzzle: how can characteristics that  disappeared millions of years ago suddenly reappear?

This  means  that examples  of  evolutionary  throwbacks  have  led  to  the  question  of  how  certain  long-lost  traits  could reappear.
Answer35 B
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: shark, killer whale,
LocationLook in Para 9
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “One possibility is that these traits are lost and then simply reappear, in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales.”

This  means  that  the  shark  and  killer  whale  are  mentioned  to exemplify the occurrence of a particular feature in different species.
Answer36 D
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: Wagner, research
LocationLook in Para 9
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “Another  more  intriguing  possibility  is  that  the  genetic information needed to make toes somehow survived for tens or perhaps hundreds of millions of years in  the  lizards  and  was  reactivated.”

This  means  that  one  explanation  for  the  findings  of  Wagner’s research is the continued existence of certain genetic information.
Answer37 Not Given
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: Wagner, first, South American lizards
LocationLook in Para 8
ExplanationWhether Wagner was the first person to such research is not given.
Answer38 Yes
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: Bachia lizards with toes, toeless ancestors
LocationLook in Para 8
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors…” 

These lines suggest that the statement is true.
Answer39 No
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: temporary occurrence, long-lost traits, rare
LocationLook in Para last
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features.”

This means that the temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is NOT rare. So, the statement is false.
Answer40 Yes
KeywordsScan for the keywords, synonyms and similarities: the majority, Fiji, traits
–     traits= features
LocationLook in Para last
ExplanationRead this line intensively, “But if silent genes degrade within 6 to 10 million years, how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer time scales? The answer may lie in the womb.”

The answer may lie in the womb implies that we find answer to the question about evolutionary throwbacks if we look at research findings about the womb.

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