Answers for “Reducing the effects of climate change” with explanation

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Answer
Keywords
Location
Explanations
27. D
geo-engineering, earlier natural phenomenon
paragraph D, lines 3-4
“The idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in o 1992, which led to a short-term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5 C. So, the “earlier natural phenomenon” = “historic volcanic explosions”. based on=modelled on, earlier=historic
28. B
successful use, geo-engineering
paragraph B lines 1-2
“Geo-engineering has been shown to work, at least on a small localized scale. For decades, May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse cloud.’’ We can easily find here the example of a successful use of geo-engineering.
29. A
common, definition
paragraph A lines 7-8
geo-engineering – a term which generally refers to the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment.” Here, refers to = means / defines
30. sunshade
create, would reduce, light reaching earth
paragraph B, line 6
His scheme would employ up to 16 trillion minute spacecraft, each weighing about one gram, to form a transparent, sunlight-refracting sunshade in an orbit 1.5 million km above the Earth. This could, argues Angel, reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth by two per cent.” tiny = minute, create = form, far above Earth = 1.5 million km above the Earth
31. iron
place, the sea
paragraph C, line 2
“…. . . and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – …”. depositing = place, ocean = the sea
32. algae
encourage, to form
paragraph C, line 2
“…. . . and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – …”. to stimulate the growth = encourage, to form
33. clouds
create, would reduce,
paragraph D, line 1, 3
“… .. .. so that sulphur dioxide would form clouds which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming.” create = form, reduce the amount of light reaching Earth = a global dimming,
34. cables
fix, strong, Greenland ice sheets
paragraph D, line 5
“Scientists have also scrutinized whether it’s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforced high-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea.” strong = reinforced
35. snow
allow, reflect, radiation
End of paragraph D
“Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo-engineering plans include the planting of millions of birch trees. Whereas the region’s native evergreen pines shade the snow and absorb radiation, birches would shed their leaves in winter, thus enabling radiation to be reflected by the snow.” So, planting trees would allow snow to reflect radiation. lose = shed, allow = enable
36. rivers
change, direction, to bring
End of paragraph D
“Re-routing Russian rivers to increase cold water flow to ice-forming areas could also be used to slow down warming, say some climate scientists.” change the direction of = re-route, bring more cold water = increase cold water flow
37. B
effects, not long-lasting
paragraph E
“I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly… . . .. ” This means that once geo-engineering does its job, the effects of it on the planet may end, too. In other words, “the effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting”
37. B
effects, not long-lasting
paragraph E
“I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly… . . .. ” This means that once geo-engineering does its job, the effects of it on the planet may end, too. In other words, “the effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting”
38. D
worth exploring
last paragraph
“Human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where we shouldn’t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities.” worth exploring=shouldn’t exclude thinking thoroughly
39. C
limit
paragraph G
“To avoid such a scenario, Lunt says Angel’s project would have to operate at half strength; all of which reinforces his view that the best option is to avoid the need for geo- engineering altogether.” limit the effectiveness = operate at half strength
40. A
non-fossil-based fuels
paragraph E
Angel says that his plan is “no substitute for developing renewable energy, the only ‘permanent solution’.” non-fossil-based fuels = renewable energy, cannot be replaced = no substitute for

 

Answers for “Reducing the effects of climate change” with explanation

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