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Cambridge Book 14 Test 3 Reading Answer with Explanation

Answer of the Concept of Intelligence with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 3: Passage 1 and is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

Answer of Concept of Intelligence with Explanation

  • Answers are never in order
  • Some paragraphs may not have an answer at all and some could contain more than one answer.
  • Do this question at last. Each text will have several types of questions attached to it. If you do the matching information question last, you will have a good understanding of the passage by the time you get to it. This will make it easier and quicker to complete.
  • This is not matching heading so you may not find your answer in the first and last sentence of the paragraph always
  • You need to be aware of synonyms
  • Search for the questions with names, numbers, places and dates information to match first. It is more easy to locate them.

  1. Ignore anything you already know about the topic and don’t make assumptions. Base your answers on the text-only.
  2. The answers appear in the same order in the text as the order of the statements.
  3. Identify any words that qualify the statement, for example some, all, mainly, often, always and occasionally. These words are there to test if you have read the whole statement because they can change the meaning.
  4. Be careful when you see verbs that qualify statements, such as suggest, claim, believe and know. For example, ‘The man claimed he was a British citizen,’ and ‘The man is a British citizen’ mean two different things.
  5. Watch out for distractions. Know that the test setters love to use ‘distractions’ to test you. A prime example is qualifying words such as:- Ram often goes to the gym. Ram occasionally goes to the gym.
  6. There will be at least one of each answer type – Yes, No, Not Given. So, if you don’t have at least one of each when you’ve completed the question, you’ve made a mistake.
  7. You don’t need to read the whole text. First, you will scan for keywords and then you’ll read in detail the section in which they’re located to find the answer.
  8. Don’t look for words that exactly match those in the statements. You should also look for synonyms. Remember that you are matching meaning, not words.
  9. If you can’t find the information you are looking for, then it is probably ‘not given’. Don’t waste time looking for something that is not there.
  10. If you have no idea what the answer is put ‘not given’. You probably have no idea because the answer is not there.
AnswerKeywordsLocationExplanation
1. Bintelligence, influence, behaviour   Para B, line 4Scan for the keywords intelligence, behaviors, influence.

Now read intensively “For example, parent’s implicit theories of their children’s language development will determine at what ages they will be willing to make various corrections in their children’s speech. More generally, parents’ implicit theories of intelligence will determine at what ages they believe their children are ready to perform various cognitive tasks.”

Here, Non-scientists refer to normal people, and implicit theories refer to assumptions about intelligence.
2. Alack of clarity, intelligencePara AScan for the keywords in para A: lack of clarity= no one knows, intelligence.

Now read this line “. .. . no one knows what it actually is. This chapter addresses how people conceptualize intelligence, whatever it may actually be.”

Thus, it can be said that there is a lack of clarity over the definition of intelligence.
3. Dresearcher’s, implicit, explicit, theoriesPara DNow read intensively “if an investigation…reveals little correspondence between the extant implicit and explicit
theories, the implicit theories may be wrong”.

Here, little correspondence means difference so it is possible that these two types of theories may be different.
4. Not Givenlanguage development, disappointing,  Para BWe find the keyword ‘language development in children’ in paragraph B; but there is no mention of any slow or fast language learning.
5. Noexpectations, children educationPara EScan for the keywords: expectations, children, education.

Now read deeply “people have expectations for intellectual performances that differ for children of different ages. How these expectations differ is part a function of culture. For example, expectations for children who participate in Western-style schooling are almost certain to be different from those for children who do not participate in such schooling.”

So, peoples expectations for intellectual performances differ for children of different ages and of different cultures for eg schooling. Therefore, these expectations are not universal (universal = not different). The statement contradicts the author’s claims.
6. Yesscholars, understanding,Para JScan for the keywords: scholars and understanding.

Now read intensively “Until scholars are able to discuss their implicit theories and thus their assumptions, they are likely to miss the point of what others are saying when discussing their explicit theories and their data.”

So, it is true that scholars usually discuss their own theories without fully understanding (hence they are likely to miss the point) other scholars.
7. Bdesirable, same possibilities, open to everyonePara HKeyword synonyms and similar are given: people should have = desirable, equal opportunities = same opportunities.

Now read this line “The Jeffersonian view is that people should have equal opportunities, …. ….”
8. Cno section, preferential treatmentPara ISearch for the keywords and synonyms, similars: preferential treatment=  favouring one group over another”

Now read this line “In this view, we do not need or want any institutions that might lead to favouring one group over another.” Here we= Jacksonian.
9. Bgain benefits, achievePara HNo direct keyword so look for the synonyms and similarities: Here, opportunities = benefits.

It is Jeffersonian view who believe that “people are rewarded for what they accomplish”
10. Avariation, intelligence, birthPara GScan for the keywords: variation, intelligence, begins, birth. 

Hamiltonian view people are born with different levels of intelligence”, which means variation of intelligence begins at birth.
11. Aintelligent, positions, powerPara GScan for the keywords: intelligent= IQ, positions of power,

Here, Hamilton’s view suggests that the more intelligent (They hold the positions of power like government officials or philosopher-kings) should keep the less intelligent in line (control).
12. Ceveryone, develop, same, abilitiesPara IJacksonian holds that people are equal in terms of their competencies. 
13. Glow intelligence, uncontrolled, livesPara GHamilton believes that left to themselves, the unintelligent (ow intelligence) would create, as they always have created, a kind of chaos(uncontrolled lives).

Answer of The Power of Play with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 3: Passage 3 and is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.

Answer of The Power of Play with Explanation

  1. Ignore anything you already know about the topic and don’t make assumptions. Base your answers on the text-only.
  2. The answers appear in the same order in the text as the order of the statements.
  3. Identify any words that qualify the statement, for example some, all, mainly, often, always and occasionally. These words are there to test if you have read the whole statement because they can change the meaning.
  4. Be careful when you see verbs that qualify statements, such as suggest, claim, believe and know. For example, ‘The man claimed he was a British citizen,’ and ‘The man is a British citizen’ mean two different things.
  5. Watch out for distractions. Know that the test setters love to use ‘distractions’ to test you. A prime example is qualifying words such as:-Ram often goes to the gym.Ram occasionally goes to the gym.
  6. There will be at least one of each answer type – Yes, No, Not Given. So, if you don’t have at least one of each when you’ve completed the question, you’ve made a mistake.
  7. You don’t need to read the whole text. First, you will scan for keywords and then you’ll read in detail the section in which they’re located to find the answer.
  8. Don’t look for words that exactly match those in the statements. You should also look for synonyms. Remember that you are matching meaning, not words.
  9. If you can’t find the information you are looking for, then it is probably ‘not given’. Don’t waste time looking for something that is not there.
  10. If you have no idea what the answer is put ‘not given’. You probably have no idea because the answer is not there.
AnswerKeywordsLocationExplanations
27. Bplay, divided, separate, categoriesPara 4, line 2Now read this line “Definitions range from discrete descriptions of various types of play such as physical, construction, language, or symbolic play (Miller & Almon 2009)”.

So, the lines suggest that play can be divided into some categories like physical, construction, language, symbolic etc.
28. Gdult’s goals, play with childrenPara 8, line 3Now read this line “The adults’ role in play varies as a function of their educational goals and the child’s developmental level (Hirsch-Pasek et al. 2009).”
29. Fcombining, work, play, best, children, learnPara 7, line 3Now read this line “Researcher Joan Goodman (1994) suggested that hybrid forms of work and play are not a detriment to learning; rather they can provide optimal contexts for learning.”

This means that such hybrid, or combination, could be the best way for children to learn.
30. Ecertain, elements, play, more significant,Para 6Now read this line “Rubin and colleagues did not assign greater weight to any one dimension in determining playfulness; however, other researchers have suggested that process orientation and a lack of obvious functional purpose may be the most important aspects of play (e.g. Pellegrini 2009).”

Implying that though Rubin and his colleagues did not think that any one dimension (element) is not more significant (important) than other, Pellegrini thought differently.
31. cactivities, classified, scale of playfulnessPara 5Now read this line “Often, play is defined along a continnum as more or less playful using the following set of behavioral and dispositional criteria (e.g. Rubin et al. 1983):. . .”

Then he claims that claim that play is defined as more or less playful according to a set of criteria. In other words, there is a scale of playfulness for play.
32. noChildren, toys,Para 1Now read this line “Virtually every child, the world over, plays. The drive to play is so intense that children will do so in any circumstances, for instance when they have no real toys, or when parents do not actively encourage the behaviour. In the eyes of a young child, running, pretending and building is fun.”

Thus, it is incorrect to say that children need toys to play.
33. yesmistake, treat, play and learning, separate, activitiesPara 2Scan for the similar keywords: false = mistake, dichotomy = separate.

Now read this line “Our society has created a false dichotomy (division) between play and learning.”

Thus, it is false to treat play and learning as separate
activities.
34. not givenchildren, develop, artisticPara 2
Keywords are in para 2, but there is no information about ‘artistic talents’ in this paragraph.
35. noresearchers, agreed, definition, playPara 4Now read this line “full consensus on a formal definition of play continues to elude the researchers and theorists who study it”.
Here, “Full consensus=full agreement‟, “elude= confusing”.

Thus, it is clear that they have not agreed on a definition of play yet. So the statement contradicts the author’s claims.
36. yeswork and play, differ, have a targetPara 7, line 2Now read this line “Unlike play, work is typically not viewed as enjoyable and it is extrinsically motivated (i.e. it is goal-oriented).”

It means that work has a target, and in that way it is different from play.
37. encouragingAlternatively, adult, play with child, develop, for instance, investigatePara 9, line 2Now read this line “In the more direct form of guided play, parents or other adults can support children’s play by joining in the fun as a co-player, raising thoughtful questions, commenting on children’s discoveries, or encouraging further exploration or new facets to the child’s activity.”
38. desireadults, help children, structured,  Now read this line “Although playful learning can be somewhat structured, it must also be child-centered (Nicolopolou et al. 2006). Play should stem from the child’s own desire.”

In other words, the play should be based on the child and his/her desire to play.
39 & 40. autonomy & targetedintervention of adults, with adults, particular goalsLast paraFirst read this line “Intrinsically motivated free play provides the child with true autonomy, …”

Now read this line “while guided play is an avenue through which parents and educators can provide more targeted learning experiences.”

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