Explained answer of “obtaining linguistic data”

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Question 27-31:
27. D (para D, line 4-6: “way of making those claims more accurate („difficult‟ pieces of
speech can be listened to repeatedly). But obtaining naturalistic”)

28. E (para E, first 7 lines: “An audio tape recording does not solve all linguist‟s problem,
however. Speech is often unclear and ambiguous. Where possible, therefore, the
recording has to be supplemented by the observer‟s written comments on non-verbal
behavior of the participants, and about the context in”)

29. C (para C, line 6-9: “small group of large-scale samples. Age, sex, social background and
other aspects of identity are important, as the factors are known to influence the kind of
language used. The topic of conversation and the char-“)

30. D (para D, last 8 lines: “Alternatively, attempts can be made to make the speaker forget
about the recording, such as keeping the tape recorder out of sight, or using radio
microphones. A useful technique is to introduce a topic that quickly involves the speaker,
and stimulates a natural language style (e.g asking older informants about how times have
changed in their locality”)

31. F (para F, line 4-13: “bilingual informant, or through use of an interpreter, it is possible to
use translation techniques („how do you say table in your language?”) A large number of
points can be covered in a short time, using interview work sheets and questionnaires.
Often, the researcher wishes to obtain information about just a single variable, in which
case a restricted set of questions may be used: a”)

Question 32-36:
32. „(the) linguists (act)‟ ((para B, line 7-9: “correctness, or judgements on usage). Often
when studying their mother tongue, linguists act as their own informants, judging the”)

33. „foreign languages‟ (para B, last 4 lines: “enquiry, using non-linguists as informant. The
latter procedure is unavoidable when working in foreign language, or child speed”)

34. „quality‟/‟poor quality‟ (para D, line 7-9: “good-quality data is never easy. People talk
abnormally when they know they are being recorded, and sound quality can be poor. A”)

35. „facial expression(s)/non-verbal behaviour‟ (para E, line 8-10: “general. A facial
expression, for example, can dramatically alter the meaning of what is said. Video
recordings avoid these problems to a”)

36. „camera‟/‟recording‟/video recording‟ (para E, line 10-12: “Video recordings avoid these
problems to a large extent, but even they have limitations (the camera cannot be
everywhere), and”)

Question 37-40:
37. „frequency of usage‟/‟usage frequency‟ (para G, line 3-5: “known as a corpus. A corpus
enables the linguist to make unbiased statements about frequency of usage, and it
provides accessible”)

38. „particular linguistic feature‟ (para G, line 7-12: “ range and size are variable. Some
corpora attempt to cover the language as a whole, taking extracts from many kinds of
text; others are extremely selective, providing a collection of material that deals only with
a particular linguist feature. The size of the corpus”)

39. „size‟ (para G, line 12-14: “particular linguist feature. The size of the corpus depends on
practical factors, such as the time available to collect, process and store the”)

40. „intuitions‟ (para G, last 7 lines: “project can total millions of words. An important
principle is that all corpora, whatever their size, are inevitably limited in their coverage,
and always need to be supplemented by data deprived from the intuitions of native
speakers of the language, through either introspection or experimentation”)


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