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Explained answer of play is a serious business

Question 27-32:
27. H (para H, last 3 lines: “growth of nerve cells. He was surprised by the ex-tent of the
activation. „Play just Lights every- thing up,‟ he says. By allowing link-ups between brain
areas that might not normally communicate with each other, play may enhance
creativity”)

28. F (para F, first 5 lines: “According to Byers, the timing of the playful stage in young
animals provides an important clue to what’s going on. If you plot the amount of time a
juvenile devotes to play each day over the course of its development, you discover a
pattern typically associated with a „sensitive period„ — a brief development window
during which the brain can actually be modified in ways that are not possible earlier or
later in life. Think of the relative ease with which young”)

29. A (para A, last 6 lines: much more to it than that. For a start, play can even cost animals
their lives. Eighty per cent of deaths among juvenile fur seals occur because playing pups
fail to spot predators approaching. It is also extremely expensive in terms of energy.
Playful young animals use around two 1 or three per cent of their energy cavorting, and
in children that figure can be closer to fifteen l per cent. „Even two or three per cent is
huge,„ says John Byers of Idaho University. „You just don’t find animals wasting energy
like that,‟ he adds. There must be a reason “)

30. H (para H, line 2-3: “vate higher cognitive processes. „There‟: enormous cognitive
involvement in play,„ says Bekoff. He points out that play often involves complex
assessments of playmates, ideas ofrec”)

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31. I (para I, last 2 lines: “With schooling beginning earlier and becoming increasingly examorientated, play is likely to get even less of a looloin. Who knows what the result of that
will be?)

32. B (para B, line 3-7: “makes you intelligent. Playfulness, it seems, is common only among
mammals, although a few of the larger-brained birds also indulge. Animals at play often
use unique signs – tail- Wagging in dogs, for example -» to indicate that activity
superficially resembling adult behaviour is not really in earnest. A popular explanation of
play has been that it helps juveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt, mate and
socialise as adults. Another has been that”)

Question 33-35:
33. A (para C, first 2 lines: “Take the exercise theory. If play evolved to build muscle or as a
kind of endurance training, then you would expect to see permanent benefits. Hut Byers
points out that the benefits of”)

34. C (para D, first 2 lines: “Then there„s the skills-training hypothesis. At first glance,
playing animals do appear to be practising the complex manoeuvres they will need in
adulthood. But a closer inspection”
Para D, last 2 lines: “behaviour when they reached adulthood. He found that the way
the cats played had no significant effect on their hunting prowess in later life”)

35. F (para B, last 4 lines: “iour is not really in earnest. A popular explanation of play has
been that it helps juveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt, mate and socialise as
adults. Another has been that it allows young animals to get in shape for adult life by
improving their respiratory endurance. Both these ideas have been questioned in recent
years”)

Question 36-40:
36. B (para E, last 4 lines: “true. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, because
large brains are more sensitive to developmental stimuli than smaller brains, they require
more play to help mould them for adulthood. „I concluded it„s to do with learning, and
with the importance of environmental data to the brain during development,‟ he says”)

37. G (para H, line 3-4: “Bekoff. He points out that play often involves complex assessments
of playmates, ideas of reciprocity and the use of specialised signals and rules. He believes
that play creates a brain that”)

38. E (para C, line 4-6: “resulting from juvenile play would be lost by adulthood. „If the
function of play was to get into shape,‟ says Byers, „the optimum time for playing would
depend on when it was most advantageous for the young of a particular species to do so.
But it doesn’t work like that.”)

39. D (para E, first 4 lines: “Earlier this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada,
reported that there is a strong positive link between brain size and playfulness among
mammals in general. Comparing measurements for fifteen orders of mammal, he and his
team found larger brains (for a given body size) are linked to greater playfulness. The
converse was also found to be”)

40. A (para H, line 6-8: “is backed up by the work of Stephen Siviy of Gettysburg College.
Siviy studied how bouts M play affected the brain’s levels of a particular chemical
associated with the stimulation and growth of nerve cells. He was surprised by the ex-tent
of the activation. „Play just Lights every”)

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