Explained answer of “The Nature and Aims of Archaeology”

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Question 14-19:
14. YES (para 1, first 2 lines: “Archaeology is partly the discovery of the treasures of the past,
partly the careful work of the scientific analyst, partly the exercise of the creative
imagination. It is toiling in the sun on an excavation”)

15. NOT GIVEN

16. NO (para 2, last 4 lines: “also made it the perfect vehicle for fiction writers and filmmakers, from Agatha Christie with Murder in Mesopotamia to Stephen Spielberg with
Indiana Jones. However, far from reality such portrayals are, they capture the essential
truth that archaeology is an exciting quest – the quest for knowledge about ourselves and
our past”)

17. YES (para 4, last 5 lines: “Anthropologists also use the term „culture‟ in a more restricted
sense when they refer to the „culture‟ of a particular society, meaning the non-biological
characteristics unique to that society, which distinguish it from other societies.
Anthropology is thus a broad discipline – so broad that it is generally broken down into
three smaller disciplines: physical anthropology, cultural anthropology and
archaeology.”)

18. NOT GIVEN

19. NO (para 8, last 3 lines: “material culture – is the only significant source of information.
Conversational historical sources begin only with the introduction of written records
around 3,000 BC in western Asia, and much later in most other parts of the world.

Question 20-21:
20. D (para 5, first 2 lines: “Physical anthropology, or biological anthropology as it is also
called, concerns the study of human biological of physical characteristics and how they
evolved”)

21. E (para 4, last 3 lines: “which distinguish it from other societies. Anthropology is thus a
broad discipline – so broad that it is generally broken down into three smaller disciplines:
physical anthropology, cultural anthropology and archaeology.”

Question 22-23:
22. C (para 7, line 3-7: “and others square? Here are methods of archaeology and
ethnography overlap. Archaeologists in recent decades have developed
„ethnoarchaeology‟, where, like ethnographers, they live among contemporary
communities, but with the specific purpose of learning how such societies use material
culture – how they make their tools and weapons, why they build their settlements”)

23. D (para 7, first 2 lines: “Nevertheless, one of the most important tasks for the
archaeologists today is know how to interpret material culture in human terms. How were
those pots used? Why are some dwellings round?”)

Question 24-27:
24. „oral histories‟ (para 9, last 3 lines: “between history and pre-history is a convenient
dividing line that recognizes the importance of the written word, but in no way lessens
the importance of the useful information contained in oral histories”)

25. „humanistic study‟

26. „historical discipline‟
(para 10, first 2 lines: “Since the aim of archaeology is the understanding of humankind,
it is a humanistic study, and since it deals with the human past, it is a historical discipline.
But it differs from the study of written”)

27. „scientist‟ (para 10, line 5-8: “archaeologists discover, on the other hand, tell us nothing
directly in themselves. In this respect, experiments, formulates a hypothesis, test the
hypothesis against more data, and then, in conclusion, devises a model data seems best to
summarize the pattern observed in the data. The”)

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