Explained answer of “The Problem of Scarce Resources”

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Question 28-31:
28. iv (Section A, first 3 lines: “The problem of how health-care resources should be
allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and most
efficient way, is not a new one. Every health system in an economically developed
society is faced with the need to”)

29. i (Section C, line 4-7: “condition of a proper human life. Like education, political and
legal processes and institutions, public order, communication, transport and money
supply, health-care came to be seen as one of the fundamental social facilities necessary
for people to exercise their other rights as autonomous human beings”)

30. iii (para D, line 4-6: “right to health care). It is also accepted that this right generates an
obligation or duty for the state to ensure that adequate health-care resources are provided
out of the public purse. The state has no obligation to provide a health-care system
itself.”)

31. v (para E, para 1, first 6 lines: “Just at the time when it became obvious that health-care
resources could not possible meet the demands being made upon them, people were
demanding that their fundamental right to health-care satisfied by the state. The second
set of more specific changes that have led to the present concern about the distribution of
health-care resources stems from the dramatic rise in health costs in most OECD
countries, accompanied by large-scale demographic and social changes which have
meant, to”)

Question 32-35:
32. B (Section B, line 4-7: “resources and the cost to the community of those resources. Thus,
in the 1950s and 1960s, there emerged an awareness in western societies that resources
for the provision of fossil fuel energy were finite and exhaustible and that the capacity of
the nature or the environment to sustain economic development and pollution was also
finite”)

33. B (Section E, first para, line 8-10: “consumers of health-care resources. Thus in OECD
countries as a whole, health costs increase from 3.8% of GDP in 1960 to 7% of GDP in
1980, and it has been predicted that the proportion of health costs to GDP will continue to
increase.

34. A (section B, last 3 lines: “countries in the years immediately after the 1939-1945 World
War, it was assumed without question that all the basic health needs of any community
could be satisfied, at least in principle; the „invisible hand‟ of economic progress would
provide”)

35. B (section D, first 6 lines: “Although the language of „rights‟ sometimes leads to
confusion, by the late 1970s it was recognized in most societies that people have a right
to health-care (though there has been considerable resistance in the United States to the
idea that there is a formal right to health care). It is also accepted that this right generates
an obligation or duty for the state to ensure that adequate health-care resources are
provided out of the public purse. The state has no obligation to provide a health-care
system itself.”)

Question 36-40:
36. NO (section C, last 4 lines: “their other rights as autonomous human beings. People are
not in a position to exercise personal liberty and so to be self-determining if they are
poverty-stricken, or deprived of basic education, or do not love within a context of law
and order. In the same way, basic health-care is a condition of the exercise of autonomy”)

37. YES (section D, first 6 lines: “Although the language of „rights‟ sometimes leads to
confusion, by the late 1970s it was recognized in most societies that people have a right
to health-care (though there has been considerable resistance in the United States to the
idea that there is a formal right to health care). It is also accepted that this right generates
an obligation or duty for the state to ensure that adequate health-care resources are
provided out of the public purse. The state has no obligation to provide a health-care
system itself.”)

38. YES (section E, first para, line 3-8: “fundamental right to health-care satisfied by the
state. The second set of more specific changes that have led to the present concern about
the distribution of health-care resources stems from the dramatic rise in health costs in
most OECD countries, accompanied by large-scale demographic and social changes
which have meant, to take one example, that elderly people are now major (and relatively
very expensive) consumers of health-care resources. Thus in OECD countries as a whole,
health costs”)

39. NOT GIVEN

40. NOT GIVEN

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