Explained Answer of “the role of government in environmental management”

Question 14-18:
14. v (section A, first 2 lines: “The role of government is environmental management is
difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and
does so badly. Often,”)

15. vii (section B, first 4 lines: “No activity affects more of the earth‟s surface than farming.
It shapes a third of the planet‟s land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion is
rising. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the 1970s and 1980s
mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because
more land has”)

16. ii (section C, the first sentence: “All these activities may have damaging environmental
impacts.”)

17. iv (section D, first para, first 3 lines: “Government policies have frequently compounded
the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for
growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. The annual
value of these subsides is immense” about $250 billion, or more than all World Bank
lending in the 1980s.”)

18. i (section 4, first 4 lines: “A result of the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations is
likely to be a reduction of 36 per cent in the average levels of farm subsides paid by the
rich countries in 1986-1990. Some of the world‟s food production will move from
Western Europe to regions where subsides are lower on non-existent, such as the former
communist countries and parts of”)

Question 19-22:
19. G (section C, first 2 line: “All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts.
For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation,
chemical fertilisers”)

20. C

21. F

22. B (section C, line 2-6: “clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation,
chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive
farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the
spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied
by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some
insurance against pests or diseases in future. Soil erosion threatens the productivity of”)

Question 23-27:
23. C(section, line 8-10: “land in both rich and poor countries. The United State, where the
most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its
farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil‟s productivity.””)

24. B (Section D, para 1, line 6: “inputs: fertilizers and pesticides. Fertilizer use doubled in
Denmark in the period 1960-1985”)

25. D (section D, para 2, line 3-7: “1984. A study of the environmental effects, conducted in
1993, found that the end of fertilizer subsides had been followed by a fall in fertilizer use
(a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes).
The removal of subsides also stopped land0clearing and over-stocking, which in the past
had been the principal causes of erosion. Farms began diversify. The one kind of subsidy
whose removal”)

26. C (section D, para 3, first 3 lines: “In less enlightened countries, and in the Europe Union,
the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsides, and to introduce new
payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendly ways, or to
leave it fallow. It may sound”)

27. A (para F, last 6 lines: “many desirable environmental effects. The intensity of farming in
the rich world should decline, and the use of chemical inputs will diminish. Crops are
more likely to be grown in the environments to which they are naturally suited. And more
farmers in poor countries will have the money and the incentive to manage their land in
ways that are sustainable in the long run. That is important. To feed an increasingly
hungry world, farmers need every incentive to use their soil and water effectively and
efficiently”)

Question 28:
28. A

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