Explained answer of “Volcanoes Earth-Shattering News”

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Question 14-17:
14. iii (part A, para 2, first 3 lines: “Volcanoes are ultimate earth-moving machinery. A
violent eruption can blow the top few kilometers off a mountain, scatter fine ash
practically all over the globe and hurl rock fragments into stratosphere to darken the skies
a continent away”)

15. i (part B, para 2: “Even though the mantle rocks are kept solid overlying pressure, the can
still slowly „flow‟ like thick treacle. The floe, thought to be in the form of convection
currents, is powerful enough to fracture the „eggshell‟ of the crust into plates, and keep
them bumping and grinding against each other, or even overlapping, at the rate of a few
centimetres a year. These fracture zones, when the collisions occur, are where
earthquakes happen. And, very often, volcanoes”)

16. iv (part C, first para: “These zones are lines of weakness, or hot spots. Every eruption is
different, but put as it simplest, where there are weaknesses, rocks deep in the mantle,
headed to 1,350˚C, will start to expand and rise. As they do so, the pressure drops, and
they expand and become liquid and rise more swiftly”
para 2, the first line: “Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma – molten rock
from the mantle” para 3, the first line: “Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed”)

17. vi (part D, para 1, first 2 lines: “But volcanoes are not very predictable. That is because
geological time is not like human time. During quiet periods, volcanoes cap themselves
with their own lava”)

Question 18-21:
18. „plates/the plates/ the tectonic plates/‟ (part B, para 2, last 4 lines: “currents, is powerful
enough to fracture the „eggshell‟ of the crust into plates, and keep them bumping and
grinding against each other, or even overlapping, at the rate of a few centimetres a year.
These fracture zones, when the collisions occur, are where earthquakes happen. And,
very often, volcanoes”)

19. „magma‟ (part C, para 2, the first line: “Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma –
molten rock from the mantle”

20. „ring of fire‟ (part C, para 4, line 5-6: “plates which make up the earth‟s crust and mantle.
The most dramatic of these is the pacific „ring of fire‟ where there have been the most
violent explosions- Mount”)

21. „600 years‟ (part D, para 1, last 2 lines: “further eruption until the pressure below
becomes irresistible. In the cases of Mount Pinatubo, this took 600 years”)

Question 22-26:
22. „water/the water/oceans/the oceans‟ (part A, para 3, first 2 lines: “Volcanoes have not
only made the continents, they are also thought to have made the world‟s first stable
atmosphere and provided all the water for the oceans”)

23. „magma/lava/the molten rock‟ (part C, para 2, first 3 lines: “Sometimes it is slow: vast
bubbles of magma – molten rock from the mantle – inch towards the surface, cooling
slowly, to show through as granite extrusions (as on Skye, or the Great Whin Sill, the
lava dyke squeezed out like toothpaste that”)

24. „Western India/India‟ (part C, para 2, line 4-7: “carries part of Hadrian‟s Wall in northern
England). Sometimes – as in Northern Ireland, Wales and the Karoo in South Africa – the
magma rose faster, and then flowed out horizontally on to the surface in vast thick sheets.
In the Deccan plateau in Western India, there are more than two million cubic kilometrers
of lava, some of”)

25. „explodes‟

26. „gases/the gases/trapped gases‟
(part C, para 3, first 3 lines: “Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does
not have time to cool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock
expand suddenly, the lava grows with heat, it begins to forth, and it explodes with
tremendous forces”)

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