Answer of Back to the Future of Skyscraper Design with Explanation is taken from IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 14, Reading Test 2: Passage 2 and is aimed for candidates who have major problems in finding IELTS Reading Answers.
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Answer of Back to the Future of Skyscraper Design with Explanation is divided into three parts for your ease of navigating answer, passage, and questions, all at the same time.
Answer of Back to the Future of Skyscraper Design with Explanation
Tips & Process for 14-18
- Answers are never in order
- Some paragraphs may not have an answer at all and some could contain more than one answer.
- Do this question at last. Each text will have several types of questions attached to it. If you do the matching information question last, you will have a good understanding of the passage by the time you get to it. This will make it easier and quicker to complete.
- This is not matching heading so you may not find your answer in the first and last sentence of the paragraph always
- You need to be aware of synonyms
- Search for the questions with names, numbers, places and dates information to match first. It is more easy to locate them.
Tips & Process for 19-26
- You need not read the whole text in detail, just the part that is summarised, so scanning is the best skill.
- The answers are usually in the same order in the text as the order of the missing words.
- Take care of the word limit, e.g. NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS.
- When you’ve entered your answer, check the sentence to ensure that it is grammatically correct. Should the gap be filled with a verb, noun, adjective or adverb? If your answer makes the sentence grammatically wrong, then you have the wrong answer.
- Look for synonyms and paraphrases in the text rather than words that directly match.
- If it is the summary with answers, there will be more words in the list than there are gaps in the summary to fill so you won’t need them all.
- Cross the wrong answer through in pencil which does not fit the grammar
- If you’re struggling to find a specific missing word, take an educated guess and move on
|14. F||avoided, hospitals, 19th||Para F, Line 1||Keywords hospitals, 19th are obvious in para F.|
Now read this line “Much of the ingenuity present in 19th-century hospital and building design was driven by a panicked public clamoring for buildings that could protect against what was thought to be the lethal threat of miasmas – toxic air that spread disease.”
Above lines suggest that 19th-century people were terrified , people were shouting against such buildings. Here, building = hospitals. This means they were avoiding hospitals at that time.
|15. C||popularity, tall buildings, prestige||Para C, Line last||No direct keywords but synonyms; tall buildings= skyscrapers, status= prestige.|
Now read this “Short regards glass, steel and air-conditioned skyscrapers as symbols of status, rather than practical ways of meeting our requirements”.
Above line means the tall buildings (skyscrapers) symbolizes status (prestige).
|16. E||air, 19th century, modern||Para E, Line 1||Now read this line “We discovered that 19th century hospital wards could generate up to 24 air changes an hour – that’s similar to the performance of a modern-day, computer-controlled operating theatre.”|
This is a clear comparison on the circulation of air between 19th century building and modern day buildings.
|17. D||potential savings||Search for the keyword potential savings and you will find safe in Para D.|
Now read this line “We spent three years digitally modeling Billings’ final designs”, says Short. “We put pathogens in the airstreams, modeled for someone with tuberculosis (TB) coughing in the wards and we found the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm.”
This is a description of how Short tested the circulation of air in Johns Hopkins Hospital building which was built in the 19th Century.
|18. B||advertising, air conditioning,||Search for the Keywords and synonyms for this question: advertising= marketed, air conditioning. They are obvious in para B.|
Now read this line “…before the widespread introduction of air conditioning systems, which were ‘relentlessly and aggressively marketed’ by their inventors.”
Therefore, it can be paraphrased that advertising led to the large increase in the use of air conditioning.
|19. design/s||Alan short, examined, John Shaw Billings||Para D||Search for the keywords in para D.|
Now read this line “Short’s book highlights a developing and sophisticated art and science of ventilating buildings through the 19th and earlier-20th centuries, including the design of ingeniously ventilated hospitals. Of particular interest were those built to the designs of John Shaw Billings, including the first John Hopkins Hospital in the US city of Baltimore (1873-1889).”
Implies Alan Short examined the works of John Shaw Billings, whose works influenced the designs of hospitals with great ventilation.
|20 & 21.|
pathogens & tuberculosis
|calculated, air, patients, harmed||Para D||Scan for the keywords in para D. “patients= someone with tuberculosis“, “calculated= digitally modelling“, air and harm are obvious.|
Now read intensively “We spent three years digitally modelling Billings’ final designs,” says Short. “We put pathogens in the airstreams, modeled for someone with tuberculosis (TB) coughing in the wards and we found the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm.”
So, He calculated pathogens in the air coming from patients suffering from TB would not have harmed other patients.
hospitals, often modern
|Keywords are easy to scan in para E.|
Now read this line intensively “We discovered that 19th-century hospital wards could generate up to 24 air changes an hour – that’s similar to the performance of a modern-day, computer-controlled operating theatre.”
This means that the air in hospitals wards could change as often as in a modern operating theatre.
|23. communal||energy, reduced, locating, patients,||Para E||Scan for the keywords in para E.|
Now read this line intensively “Communal wards appropriate for certain patients – older people with dementia, for example – would work just as well in today’s hospitals, at a fraction of the energy cost.”
Hence, He suggests that energy use could be reduced (at a fraction of the energy cost) by locating more patients in communal areas (Communal wards).
|24 & 25.|
public & miasmas
|19th-century hospital, ventilation||Para F||Scan for the Keywords in paragraph F.|
Now read this line intensively, “Much of the ingenuity present in 19th-century hospital and building design was driven by a panicked public clamouring for buildings that could protect against what was thought to be lethal threat of miasmas – toxic air that spread disease.”
Here, the lines suggest that the public demanded protection against miasmas.
|26. cholera||epidemics, London|
|Para F, line 3||Scan for the keywords in para F.|
Now read this line intensively “Miasmas were feared as the principal agents of disease and epidemics for centuries, and were used to explain the spread of infection from the Middle Ages right through to the cholera outbreaks in London and Paris during in 1850s.”
Meaning that London and Paris city suffered from the epidemics (outbreaks) of cholera.