Cohesion and coherence carries 25% of your writing score and 25% of your speaking score as fluency and coherence. Have you prepared yourself to claim this 25% ?
How to Link Ideas in IELTS Writing and Speaking is hence a must have knowledge. So, lets get started then.
Your Writing Task 2 essay is assessed on how coherent and cohesive your writing is.
Coherence:- involves organizing information logically and in paragraphs so that it is easy for the reader to follow.
Cohesion:- involves connecting sentences and ideas using techniques such as pronoun referencing, signposts and academic phrases.
Therefore, coherence and cohesion refer to how well your writing communicates its message, that is, how well it:
- is organised
- can be understood.
To do this, we will focus on the use of:
- pronoun referencing
- signposts/ connective words
- academic phrases
1. Pronoun referencing
Pronoun referencing involves using pronouns to refer back to a subject that has already been mentioned in the same sentence or in a previous sentence. Notice the bold letters in the given examples:-
|An increasing older population would cause many problems for society. It would place a lot of pressure on the social welfare system. On the other hand, it could also provide great benefits to society by making more experienced workers available for a much longer time.
Here it represents the older population. Hence, each time when you use it you are referring to the first sentence.
If you use pronoun referencing, you improve the cohesion and coherence of your writing/speaking because you connect sentences smoothly with each other by not repeating the subject, therefore improving the flow.
Compare the following two paragraphs and decide which paragraph flows better.
|An old man lived in the village. The old man was one of the most unfortunate people in the world. The whole villagers were tired of the old man; old man was always gloomy, old man constantly complained about villagers’ attitude.|
An old man lived in the village. He was one of the most unfortunate people in the world. The whole villagers were tired of him; he was always gloomy, he constantly complained about their attitude.
Paragraph 2 flows better. Paragraph 1 repeats the nouns ‘old man’ and ‘villagers’, while Paragraph 2 uses pronoun referencing to replace these nouns.
2. Signposting words/ Connective Words
Signposts can be used to link your ideas between sentences and paragraphs and within sentences. Signposts that link ideas within a sentence are usually called conjunctions.
Table 1 and 2 present some of the functions of signposts in a sentence.
We will focus on the most commonly used only.
Table 1 Signposts usually found at the beginning of the sentence
|Introduce a new subject||Regarding
With regard to
The most important reason
|Introduce a contrasting idea||However
On the other hand
|Introduce a similar idea||Likewise
|Add another idea||Also
|Give an example||For example
|Give the cause||Because of
|Give the effect||Therefore
As a result
As a consequence
For this reason
|Conclude your essay||In conclusion
To sum up
Table 2 Signposts usually found within a sentence (conjunctions)
|Introduce a contrasting idea||Cities are polluted, but/while/whereas the countryside is not.|
|Give an example||Urbanisation causes a lot of pollution such as air, noise and water pollution.|
|Add another idea.||Air pollution is caused by smoke from factories and/as well as cars.|
|Air pollution is caused by smoke from factories too/also.|
|Give the cause||Cities are polluted because/as there is so much smoke.|
|Give the effect||There is a lot of smoke in cities so/so that they become polluted.|
3. Academic Phrases
A further way of achieving cohesion and coherence in your Task 2 essay is the use of academic phrases. An academic phrase is a group of words that is used to draw the reader’s attention to your ideas making your arguments and ideas clear.
If you would like to print the tables on this page, click on the PDF link below.
Academic phrases are used to:
|Give your opinion|
||smoking should be banned in all restaurants.|
|Show to what extent you agree/disagree with a statement|
||that smoking should be banned in all restaurants.|
|Give the opposite side of an argument|
||that everyone should be allowed to make their own decision.|
|Give the opinion of others|
||that smoking in restaurants affects non-smokers as much as smokers.|
|Give a solution to a problem|
||that all restaurants have a special smoking area.|
|Show the cause followed by the effect|
|Show the effect followed by the cause|
|Make a prediction|
||that restaurants will be force|