| attend classes: to go to classes|
numeracy: ability to understand and work with numbers
distance learning: classes through internet
day release: a system of allowing employees days off work to go on educational courses.
learn something by heart: to memorize it
to meet a deadline: to finish a job or task in the time allowed or agreed
| to play truant: to stay away from classes without permission |
to sit an exam: to take an exam
to take a year out: to spend a year working or traveling before starting university
to fall behind with studies: to progress less quickly than others
an intensive course: a course that offers lots of training in order to reach a goal in as short a time as possible
|to be called for an interview: to be invited to attend an interview
a heavy workload: to have a lot of work to do
a high-powered job: an important or powerful job
job satisfaction: the feeling of enjoying a job
semi-skilled: neither skilled nor unskilled
blue-collar worker: manual labor workers
demanding job: a job that requires physical force
downsizing: cutting the size of employee numbers
workaholic: requiring a lot of work
made redundant: no longer a need for the company(employee)
fill in: replace somebody
|a nine-to-five job: a normal job that consists of an 8 hour day (approximately)
to be/get stuck in a rut: to be in a boring job that is hard to leave
to be well paid: to earn a good salary
working conditions: the hours, salary and other entitlements that come with the job
a dead-end job: a job with no promotional opportunities
to do a job-share: to share the weekly hours of work with another person
a good team player: somebody who can work well with other people
knuckle down: start working hard
lay off: cut employment
step down: Leave the job to somebody else
|IELTS Topic Related Vocabulary for Business, Money, and Finance|
| go bankrupt: to be unable to pay one’s debts
extravagant: a habit of spending more
frugal: simple which costs you less
mortgage: convey (a property) to a creditor as security on a loan
exorbitant: unreasonably high priced
good bargain: a good deal
Run over: to exceed a planned amount of money or time
Pay off (someone*): to reward/ to bribe*
cash flow: the money coming in and going out of a business
Payback: to repay, to return a loan
Rake in: to make a lot of money
niche business: a business that serves a small, particular market
sales figures: a report of the income a company generates through sales of products or services
stiff competition: strong competition
to win a contract: when a business gets legally-binding work with an individual or company
Hammer out: to produce something with much difficulty
Nail down: to finalize something
balance the books: balance the expenditure
cold call: to make a sales call to someone without asking them for permission first
drum up business: to try to get customers
earn a living: to earn money
|IELTS Topic Related Vocabulary for Politics|
|Big government: A description of the government that is believed to be too much by some.
Carpetbagger: A carpetbagger is an opportunist without any ethics
Bipartisan: Something that is supported by politicians from two different political parties.
Candidate: A person who wishes to be elected via a vote.
Checks and balances: The different parts of the American political set up that ensures power is distributed appropriately.
Coalition: When two or more political parties work together to form a government.
|Propaganda: Information that supports or dismisses a topic that may be at least partially untrue.
Pundit: A person who is an expert and often works for the media.
Liberal: A person who believes in progress and protecting civil liberties.
Lobby: To try to persuade someone, often a politician, to do as you want.
Patriot: A person who loves their country.
Convention: A gathering of the members of a political party.
Pork barrel: Pork barrel politics involves investing money in an area to get political support
IELTS Topic Related Vocabulary for Architecture
|art deco: the style of the buildings
elegant: stylish in appearance
energy-efficient: energy saving
an eyesore: a thing that is very ugly, especially a building.
pleasing geometric forms: well-designed patterns
skyscraper: a very tall building of many storeys
well-designed: designed beautifully
a masterpiece: extremely beautiful
multi-storey: having many stores
|tear down: to demolish
dismantle: to destroy
finest example: a perfect example
most stunning piece: an iconic building
derelict: empty and in bad condition
Floorplan: the actual layout of the building
green building: environment-friendly buildings
façade: outer appearance
high-rise apartments: a tall building
|IELTS Topic Related Vocabulary for Arts and Crafts|
|Naturalism: the way an artists sees things
Craftsmen: skilled in using something
balance: feeling of equality and attraction with attention
Motif: repeated features to show dominance
Texture: The actual or the illusion of tactile value(feeling of touch) on the surface
|Aesthetic: Relating to or characterized by a concern with beauty
Artifice: Deception or trickery
B movie: A low-budget movie
Censorship: examining arts to remove anything against the ethics or rules
Content: The subject matter or significance of a work of art
Curator: A person whose job it is to research and manage a collection and organize exhibitions.
|Wipe Out: Eliminate
Use up: Use until nothing is left
Spread out: Cover a large area
Scale down: Reduce the quality/quantity
Dispose off: Get rid off
Phase out: Stop gradually
endangered species: categories of animals or plants that are in danger of becoming extinct
exhaust fumes: the toxic gases given off by vehicles powered by petrol
flash floods: floods that happen quickly
fossil fuels: energy resources like gas and oil that are produced deep below the ground over millions of years
to get back to nature: to live a life that is closer to nature
global warming: the increasing temperature of the world brought about by gases such as carbon dioxide
humanitarian aid: the act of showing support to people struggling to survive
impact on: the effect on
|genetically modified: changed from usual using genes
Toxic Waste: harmful waste
Quarintine: a place of isolation where contageous disese is treated
Green Belt: an area of open land around a city, on which building is restricted.
Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
the natural world: the world of nature
oil spill: waste usually deposited in the seas and oceans after an accident at sea
poaching: to hunt and kill wild animals illegally
pressure group: a group of people who try to raise awareness of issues and try to affect the views and actions of people and organisations
toxic waste: poisonous, unwanted rubbish often produced by industrial processes
wildlife conservation: to protect animals and plants and their habitats
| Sedentary lifestyle: involving little or no physical activity
Vulnerable: exposed to the possibility of being attacked
Stress-related: relating to prressure
overweight : fat
cutbacks: reducing the intake of something
incurable: having no cure
examination: check up
therapy: a type of treatment
catch a cold: catch common cold
healthy diet: diet which is healthy
work out: exercise
| as fit as fiddle: healthy
dietary habits: food habits
unhealthy habits: habits which may cause disease
be in shape: maintaing the physical fitness
mental health: stress free hea;th
to be over the worst: to have got through the most serious or uncomfortable stage of an illness
to phone in sick: to call work to explain you won’t be attending work due to illness
to make a speedy recovery: to recover quickly from an illness
deported: expel from country
expatriate: living outside their native country
repatriated: return to own country
persona: aspect of someones character
economic migrants: migrants for business
culture shock: Feeling confused when exposed to new culture
traffic congestion: heavy traffic making it difficult to move around a town or city
run down: old and of a poor standard
places of interest: buildings that have a particular interest for visitors
|tourist trap: somewhere where too many tourists go
to go sightseeing: to look around the tourist sites
stunning landscape: extremely beautiful countryside
holiday of a lifetime: a special holiday that you are unlikely to repeat
far-off destination: somewhere a long way away
breathtaking view: an extremely beautiful view
exhausting commuting: travelling that makes tired
baggage: bags carried for travelling
car breakdown: car stopped working
in the suburbs: the outer area of large towns and cities where people live
|IELTS Topic Related Vocabulary for Crime, Law, and Justice|
Law-abiding: Obedient to laws
Defendant: sued/accused in court of law
Guilty: Found responsible for wrongdoing or an unlawful act.
Offense: A breach of law/illegal act.
Sentence: Length of time a prisoner is imprisoned.
Prosecution: The legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge.
Capital punishment: The legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime.
Corporal punishment: Physical punishment, such as caning or flogging.
Juvenile offenders: Young criminals
Getaway: An escape or quick departure, especially after committing a crime.
Break the law: To go against the law.
Witness = someone who sees a crime being committed
Charged: an accusation made against someone
Plead: make an emotional appeal
Innocent: not guilty of a crime
Rehabilitate: restore after imprisonment
Lenient: more tolerant than expected
Deter: discourage someone from doing something
Hearsay = when you hear something from someone, but you don’t know if it is true or not
Diminished responsibility = when someone cannot be held responsible for a crime, because they are mentally ill
|Populism: a political approach that strives to appeal to ordinary people who feel that their concerns are disregarded by established elite groups. |
gender-non-binary: not associated with a specific gender
extremists: a person who holds extreme political or religious views, especially one who advocates illegal, violent, or other extreme action.
power struggle: a clash for power
riots: a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd.
poverty-stricken: extremely poor.
intimidation: to frighten or threaten someone, usually in order to persuade them to do something that you want
racial purging: ethnic cleansing
|gen z: anyone born after 1997|
dissidents: a person who opposes official policy, especially that of an authoritarian state.
millennial: denoting or relating to a period of a thousand years
political scandal: an action or event regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage.
racism: prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.
rebels: a person who rises in opposition or armed resistance against an established government or leader
black-leg: a person who continues working when fellow workers are on strike
destitute: extremely poor and lacking the means to provide for oneself.
|breakthrough: a sudden, dramatic, and important discovery or development.|
technophobe: a person who fears, dislikes, or avoids new technology.
technophile: a person who is enthusiastic about new technology.
cutting-edge: highly advanced; innovative or pioneering.
|shutdown: a closure of a factory or system, typically a temporary closure due to a fault or for maintenance.|
inventions: the action of inventing something, typically a process or device.
wear and tear: damage or change
a computer buff: an expert computer user
|fast food: easily prepared processed food |
balanced diet: a diet consisting of a variety of different types of food
harvest: the process or period of gathering in crops.
free range: (of livestock, especially poultry) kept in natural conditions
to foot the bill: to pay the bill.
to work up an appetite: to do something that will lead to hunger.
| to be starving hungry: an exaggerated way of saying you are very hungry|
fussy eater: someone who is very picky about the food and doesn’t eat everything.
mouth–watering: delicious, appetizing.
quick snack: a light and quick meal, usually unhealthy.
to catch a snack: to eat a little portion of food very quickly.
to spoil appetite: to do something that would hinder your desire to eat.
| population explosion: a sudden, large increase in the size of a population.|
high-rise flats: multi-story apartments
places of interest: buildings that have a particular interest for visitors
sprawling city: a city that has grown over time and which covers a wide area
metropolis: the capital or chief city of a country or region.
cosmopolitan: including people from many different countries.
|in the suburbs: the outer area of large towns and cities where people live|
cost of living: the level of prices relating to a range of everyday items.
anonymity: the condition of being unknown.
city dwellers: a person who lives in a city.
commuters: a person who travels some distance to work on a regular basis.
rush hour: a time during each day when traffic is at its heaviest.
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