Punctuation

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SILENT LETTERS
1. Silent A: automatically, basically, dramatically, typically, specifically.
2. Silent B: bomb, comb, debt, thumb, doubt.
3. Silent C: muscle, acquire, black, scissor, indict.
4. Silent D: handsome, handkerchief, Wednesday, adjust, thousandth.
5. Silent E: cheese, decrease, giraffe, evening, different.
6. Silent F: halfpenny.
7. Silent G: assign, align, foreign, sign, high, light.
8. Silent H: exhibition, honesty, hour, honour, vehicle.
9. Silent I: businessman, friend.
10. Silent J: marijuana.
11. Silent K: knee, knife, knock, know, knowledge.
12. Silent L: calm, half, almond, could, talk.
13. Silent M: mnemonic.
14. Silent N: column, autumn, damn, hymn, solemn.
15. Silent O: colonel, people, chocolate, opossum, leopard.
16. Silent P: psychiatry, cupboard, psychology, receipt, corps.
17. Silent Q: lacquer, Colquhoun.
18. Silent R: butter, finger, forecastle garden, here.
19. Silent S: aisle, island, science, debris, bourgeois.
20. Silent T: castle, listen, often, whistle, ballet.
21. Silent U: colleague, guess, guitar, tongue, catalogue.
22. Silent V: Milngavie.
23. Silent W: answer, acknowledge, write, wreck, whole, who.
24. Silent X: billet-doux, faux pas, Sioux.
25. Silent Y: Islay, Pepys.
26. Silent Z: chez, laissez-faire, rendezvous.

PRONUNCIATION OF “S” ENDINGS
1. Overview
“S” endings serve different purposes:
1.1. Plurals: boys, ideas, dogs, trees, seats, horses.
1.2. Third-Person Verbs: speaks, plays, gives, makes, hates.
1.3. Possessives: Peter’s car, women’s clothing, friend’s brother, Mother’s day, my dog’s bone
1.4. Contractions: He’s a nice boy, It’s a nice day, There’s no food in the house. That’s a good idea, Let’s go.
2. How to pronounce
2.1. /ɪz/: sandwiches, washes, teaches, boxes, oranges, catches, faces.
2.2. /s/ After voiceless sounds including:
/t/: sits, cats, hits, writes, hats.
/k/: cooks, books, drinks, walks, talks.
/f/: cliffs, beliefs, laughs, graphs, sniffs.
/p/: cups, stops, sleeps, keeps, jump.
/θ/: myths, tablecloths, months
2.3. /z/ After voiced sounds: crabs, rubs, cards, words, rides,…
3. Examples
– He’s speaking with his clients.
– She reads emails and checks messages every morning.
– He always cooks lunch for me.
– He drives a taxi.
– Can you go to the market and get some eggs?

PRONUNCIATION OF “ED” ENDINGS
1. Overview
“ed” endings serve different purposes such as: past and past participle
Opened, called, pushed, liked, helped, included.
2. How to pronounce
/ɪd/: ending with /t/: wanted, lifted, computed, estimated, investigated.
Ending with /d/: needed, divided, ended, added, decided.
/t/: after voiceless sounds:
/k/: cooked, hooked, looked, liked, picked, talked.
/p/: developed, helped, hoped, stopped, jumped.
/f/: golfed, proofed, sniffed, stuffed, laughed
/s/: addressed, forced, increased, passed, produced.
/ʃ/: brushed, crashed, finished, pushed, distinguished.
/tʃ/: reached, touched, watched.
/θ/: bathed, berthed, smoothed.
/d/: after voiced sounds: agreed, played, showed, charged, called, …
3. Examples
She stayed at home yesterday.
The sun had baked the ground hard.
He avoided me when he saw me.
He listened while I showed photos and talked about my trip.
I called her last night but she didn’t answer the phone.

PRONUNCIATION OF “ES” ENDINGS
After the following sounds:
/s/: faces, places, services, buses, kisses, houses.
/z/: causes, sizes, closes, chooses, does.
/tʃ/: teaches, researches, catches, watches, switches.
/ʃ/: cashes, dishes, finishes, washes, wishes.
/dʒ/: advantages, ages, oranges, pages, changes.
/ʒ/: massages, messages, mirages, rouges, collages.

PRONUNCIATION OF ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING WITH ‘ED’
The following are some adjectives and adverbs that contain “ed” and pronounced /ɪd/:
beloved naked blessed ragged crooked rugged crabbed sacred cursed wicked dogged wretched learned unmatched aged supposedly advisedly one/two/three-legged

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