According to IELTS examiner, Barbara Adama, a friend of mine working for British Council, “One of the most common weaknesses which I find in essays of many candidates is that most of the sentences are too short or too basic”. In your essay, examiner will be looking for sentence variation when they grade you for your ‘grammatical range’. Hence you must know how to use them correctly. To understand sentence structure, you need to have an idea of clause.
What is clause then?
Clause is a group of words with subject/s and verb/s.
|1 clause IT and Science are interrelated to each other.||Subject Verb IT, Science are|
|2 clauses IT and Science are interrelated to each other, when we talk about it’s development.||1st clause 2nd Clause IT and Science are interrelated to each other we talk about it’s development.|
Now, Sentence Types.
There are four types of sentence:
1. Simple Sentences
A simple sentence is one clause with a subject and verb.
|The graph increases from x to y.|
2. Compound Sentences
A compound sentence consists of 2 or 3 clauses. It is when simple sentences are joined together either by using conjunctions or using semicolons.
Using coordinating conjunctions:-
|Join 2 or 3 clauses by using these coordinating conjunctions to make it a compound sentence. For And Nor But Or Yet So|
|Another challenge which is at least equal to the environment is the need to reduce poverty in less developed countries, and again there is no simple solution for this.|
There is an instance when you can have a compound sentence structure without a coordinating conjunction, and this is when you join two clauses with a semicolon. Remember that these two clauses should have a relation.
|IT and science is interrelated; they are two sides of a coin.|
3. Complex Sentences
This type of sentence structure is important for IELTS because to get awarded a band 7 or higher for your ‘grammatical range and accuracy’, you need to demonstrate that you are able to use them. The more varied and the more accurate your complex sentences are, the higher the band score for this.
Complex sentences are two (or more) clauses joined together, but they are not joined by coordinating conjunctions. They are joined by subordinating conjunctions.
|After||Although||As||As if||As long as||As much as||As soon as||As though|
|Even if||In order to||In case||Once||since||So that||That||though|
|While X may be positive in some respects, we should also consider its negative aspects, namely A, B and C.|
Complex sentences have three types:
- Adverbial Clauses
- Relative Clauses
- Noun Clauses
Instead of repeating the same grammatical structure relating to complex sentence, let’s learn to offer variety.
1) Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses answer questions such as how, why, when, where; made by connecting an independent clause and a dependent clause with a subordinating conjunction.
|Every country should focus on science because technological achievements cannot be achieved without it. OR Because technological achievements cannot be achieved without it, every country should focus on science|
2) Relative Clauses
When dependent and independent clause are joined by using relative pronouns, it gives relative clause.
|Relative Pronouns who which that Where when|
|We humans, who learned to tame the wild fire, are supreme than any creatures on this planet.|
- Use it after noun(who comes after humans)
3) Noun Clauses
A noun clause answers the question ‘who?’ or ‘what?’. Unlike relative clauses, which come after the noun, noun clauses come after the verb.
|I think that corruptions is wrong and that those guilty of it should be punished.|
4. Compound-Complex Sentences
Compound-complex sentences are the same as complex sentences but they also have a simple (or compound) sentence before or after the ‘complex’ part.
|I ate a lot when I got home, but I was still hungry.|
Band 9 sample essay using sentence variation.
|Environmental issues are a concern for almost everyone today, as we see the natural world suffering increasing damage from pollution, construction and other human activity. However, to say that governments should regard this one issue as their main priority may be a rather simplistic view. |
Admittedly, it is correct that environmental protection should be among our greatest concerns. Without coordinated measures from national and global organisations, the environment will continue to deteriorate, leading to a more unstable world for us all. However, by focussing on this topic to the exclusion of others we run the risk of neglecting a range of other, equally grave challenges. Foremost among these other challenges appears to be the question of overpopulation, by which I mean the growth of human numbers beyond the ability of the human race to support itself. If this problem is not addressed, we potentially face the collapse of modern human society, and consequently the ability of the human race to combat the environmental damage which has already taken place.
Another challenge which is at least equal to the environment is the need to reduce poverty and disease in less developed countries, which again would enable those populations to play a larger part in attempts to preserve nature. Finally, there is the question of unemployment and the need to find ways to reduce this problem. By increasing the number of people in work throughout the world, governments would create the revenues and economic stability required to make environmental protection more viable.
Overall, the environment is certainly a major priority. However, it should be seen as one among a range of issues to be solved, and the solutions themselves could lead to better preservation of nature.